VOCABULARY // New words.

  • Skeleton                                         Posture
  • Hinge joint                                    Ball and socket
  • Pivot joint                                     Gliding joint
  • Voluntary muscles                       Involuntary muscles

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Muscular – Skeletal System (lesson one)

It is a system that gives animals the ability to move. It is a composition of bones and muscles


It is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

HUMAN SKELETON: It is the frame work of bones in the body. An adult human being has about 206 bones


  1. Exo skeleton.    The hard material is formed on the outside part of the body.

Examples of organisms with exo skeleton are: insects and crustaceans.

These animals grow by ecdysis / moulting.

  • Endo skeleton.  The animals have bony skeletons within their bodies.

Examples of organisms with endo skeleton are: people, cow, etc.

  • Hydrostatic skeleton. This is where the pressure of the fluid and action of the surrounding muscles are used to change the shape of an organism and produce movement.

Examples of organisms with hydrostatic skeleton:

snails, earth worms, slugs, star fish, jelly fish, sea urchins etc.


  1. Briefly explain the term:
  2. Skeleton                                        b) Human skeleton
  3. How many bones does a normal human being posses?
  4. Write down the three types of skeleton.
  5. How is ecdysis important to insects?
  6. What type of skeleton do the following have:
  7. A snail    b) a slug   c) a tortoise


parts of skeleton

Classifications of bones.

1. Long bones-e.g. femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna.

              They contain the white bone marrow used to produce white blood cells.

 2. Short bones– e.g. sternum, cranium, vertebra, ribs

              They contain red bone marrow usedto produce red blood cells.

           Red blood cells are destroyed in the liver or spleen.
3. Flat bones -e.g. shoulder blade, cranium (skull), rib cage, and scapula.

4. Irregular bones –Bones of the neck vertebra, sacrum.


  1. Briefly explain the term bone.
  2. Write down the three types of bones in one’s body.
  3. Why do babies have many bones than adults?
  4. State any examples of each of the bones below
  5. Long bones    b) irregular bones
  6. How are the bone marrows important to us?