1. This is natural way of feeding in which a baby sucks milk from the mother’s breasts.
  • Importance of breast feeding to a baby.
  • Breast-feeding builds a strong relationship between the baby and the mother.
  • Breast milk contains antibodies that boost the baby’s immune system.
  • Breast milk is clean and ready for use at any time.
  • Breast milk contains almost all the food values needed by the baby.

Importance of breast feeding to the mother.

  1. Breast- feeding lays mother’s next pregnancy thus providing natural child spacing.
  2. Breast-feeding strengthens the relationship between the mother and the baby.
  3. Breast milk is cheaper to the family because it’s not bought.
  4. Breast- feeding is not time wasting because breast milk is always ready.
  5. Breast- feeding gives a mother chance to rest from what she has been doing.

Bottle feeding.

  1. This is an artificial way of feeding in which a baby sucks milk from the bottle.

2.     Factors that make a baby be bottle-fed.

  1. When the mother is HIV positive.
  2. When the mother does not produce enough milk.
  3. If the mother is of working class.
  4. If a mother dies immediately after giving birth.
  • Advantages of bottle-feeding.
  • In case of working mothers, bottle- feeding gives them a chance to concentrate on their work.
  • It prevents mother to child transmission of diseases like AIDS.
  • It acts as a supplement for babies whose mothers do produce enough milk.
  • It’s the only feeding solution to babies whose mothers die when they are still young.
  • Problems associated with bottle- feeding.
  • May lead to infection due to contaminated bottles.
  • Bottle-feeding is time wasting.
  • Bottle- feeding is expensive because the family has to spend money to buy milk.
  • Some babies may be allergic to the cow’s milk.

Growth and development.

  1. Growth refers to one’s increase in size.
  2. Development refers to one’s increase in maturity.
  3. Puberty is when one becomes sexually mature.
  4. Adolescence is stage of development between child hood and adult hood.

Primary sex characteristics in adolescents.

  1. These are changes that involve sex organs in preparation for a reproductive function.

2.     In males:

  1. the penis and the testes enlarge
  2. testes begin to produce sperms
  3. one begins to experience wet dreams

3.     In females:

  1. development of the uterus and the ovaries
  2. production of ova by the ovaries
  3. menstrual cycles begin

Secondary sex characteristics in adolescents.

  1. These are changes that are related to physical features that differentiate a mature man from a mature woman.

2.     In males:

  1. Growth of hair on the chest, armpit and on the face.
  2. The voice deepens.
  3. Sweat glands become active.
  4. Development of muscles.

Note:  Increased levels of a hormone called testosterone bring about these changes in males.

3.     In females:

  1. Development of breasts.
  2. Growth of hair in the pubes and the armpit.
  3. Enlargement of hips.
  4. Active sweat glands.
  5. Development of muscles and beautiful look.

Psychological and emotional changes.

  1. These are changes that occur in one’s mind and may not be realised by an adolescent.
  2. They include:
  3. Adolescents become interested in members of the opposite sex.
  4. They want to look and be recognised as mature.
  5.  Move in peer groupings of boys and girls.
  6. Become angry and disappointed quickly.
  7. React quickly to different situations e.g. a boy or girl who was once docile and cooperative, becomes resistant and disobedient.

Out of step changes.

  1. These are changes that occur differently to different in the same age group.
  2. Some of these changes occur earlier or later than they are expected in some individuals.
  3. They include:
  4. A boy who was previously short may find himself taller compared to his age mates.
  5. A girl who was once considered small may find herself too tall and too fat compared to her age mates.
  6. Those who mature later may be influenced by those who mature early.
  7. Anxiety may be created on those who mature later and left behind by their age mates.

Problems of adolescence.

  1. This stage brings conflicts between adolescents and culture and religion.
  2. This stage brings conflicts by adolescents wanting to experiment situations.
  3. Makes adolescent to develop anti-social behaviours such as smoking, alcoholism etc.
  4. Makes an adolescent gain forms of wished anxiety.
  5. Brings conflicts between adolescents and elders.

Family planning.

  1. Family planning is a measure taken by parents to have a manageable number of children.
  2. This is usually achieved through birth control methods.
  3. Birth control methods ensure child spacing.
  4. Child spacing is where parents give adequate time between the birth of their family children.

5              Uses of  family planning.

  1. Enables the mother to regain her health in preparation for the next pregnancy.
  2. Enables parents to have a manageable number of children in a family.
  3. Enables children to have enough basic needs.
  4. Checks on the population of a country.
  5. Helps in the control of unwanted pregnancies.

6.     Some reasons why some parents produce many children.

  1. Ignorance about family planning methods.
  2. High infant mortality rate.
  3. Desire for a particular sex of a child.
  4. Cultural beliefs and the need to show that one is sexually strong.

        Birth control methods.

  1. Natural birth control methods.
  2. Abstinence: This is a method where persons do without sex for an agreed period of time. This method is good for school going children and the unmarried.
  3. Breast-feeding: Breast- feeding delays the re- occurrence of ovulation and menstrual periods. It’s only effective if the mother breast-feeds frequently and for a longer time.
  4. Rhythm: This involves studying one’s menstrual cycle and having sex only when ovulation is likely not to take place. It is effective in females with regular menstrual cycles. It calls for mutual understanding between the two partners.
  5. Withdrawal method: This is a method where a man pulls out his penis from the vagina before ejaculation. It’s not effective because semen leak ahead of time for ejaculation.
  6. Artificial birth control method.
  7. Use of contraceptive pills: Pills contain hormones that suppress (prevent) ovulation. This method is effective if the pills are correctly used as directed by the health worker.
  8. Birth control injections: This works in the same way as the pills. The also contain hormones that prevent ovulation and menstruation. Here, a dose of an injection is given for along time (3-6 years).
  9. Use of condoms: A condom is a thin rubber made in different shapes to be used by both men and women.
  • Use of IUD:
  • IUCD= Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device.
  • IUD= Intra Uterine Device.

These are specially shaped plastic that are inserte int the uterus. This device prevents implantation of a fertilised ovum thus making conception impossible.

Some of the Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Devices

  • Use of a diaphragm: This is a shallow cup made of rubber and worn by women before sexual contact. Unlike condoms, a cup can be used several times. It prevents semen from getting in contact with the female reproductive organ thus preventing fertilisation. The method is effective if it’s used together with the contraceptive foam.
  • Use of contraceptive foam: This is a chemical applied into the vagina an hour before sexual intercourse. The chemical kills sperms.

Sterilisation method: This is a permanent method in which the couple will not have a child in their lifetime. The operation involves cutting and tying the oviduct and the sperm duct in females and males respectively. In males, the operation is called vasectomy and in females, the operation is called tubl- ligation.


Abortion is the deliberate or an intended termination of pregnancy.

Factors that make one opt foe an abortion.

  1. The need to continue with education.
  2. Public opinion- Women fear to be seen pregnant especially in the first pregnancy.
  3. Fear to lose a job.
  4. Un wanted pregnancy e.g. pregnancy resulting from rape.

Dangers of abortion.

  1. Can lead to death.
    1. May lead to secondary infertility.


This is un intended or accidental termination of pregnancy.

Causes of miscarriages

  1. Malaria infection.
    • Severe alcoholism and drug abuse by pregnant mothers.
    • Self medication.
    • External pressure like beating.
    • Stress.

Disorders of the reproductive system

  1. Blocked oviduct or sperm duct which could have been brought by un treated gonorrhoea.
    1. Undescended testes that usually leads to non production of sperms in males.
    1. Presence of both the male and female organs in one being.
    1. Kinked fallopian tube.