Captain Fredrick Lugard

  • He was sent to Uganda in 1890’s as the representative of I.B.E.A.Co.
  • He was declared the first British administrator in Uganda.
  • He began his work by building a fort in old Kampala.
  • He signed treaties with Kabaka Mwanga ofBuganda.
  • He restored peace by bringing the Sudanese soldiers.
  • He restored Omukama Kasagama to his throne.
  • He stopped religious wars in Buganda.

Why did captain F.P Lugard bring the Sudanese soldiers?

To protect the missionaries.
To protect Omukama Kasagama ofToro against Kabalega.
To maintain peace in Buganda.

The German East Africa Company.

The German traders came to East Africa to;
Carryout legitimate trade.
To get raw materials for their home industries.
To promote German administration in Tanganyika.

Carl Peters
He was the leader of the German colonialist in Tanganyika.
He was the founder of G.E.A.Co.
He signed treaties with local chiefs – He was the first European to sign a treaty
with kabaka Mwanga.
He set up a protectorate over Witu and Kilimanjaro area.

Note: Germany was the first European country to show interest in colonizing Uganda.

Colonialism involves control of a weaker country by a powerful country.

Countries that colonized east Africa
Britain – Uganda and Kenya
Germany – Tanganyika (Tanzania)

Note: Rwanda and Burundi were colonized by Germany.
Other countries which also struggled for colonies in East Africa but were forced away and so they
dominated E. Africa’s neighbors include;
Belgium – congo
Italy – Somalia
Portugal – Mozambique
Spain, e.t.c
African countries which were not colonised
Liberia and Ethiopia

Note: – Liberia was set aside for freed slaves from America.
Ethiopia – had strong leaders / strong army / had mountains which made transport for Italians difficult,
The scramble and partition of East Africa
Scramble – This refers to the struggle of European countries to get colonies in
Partition – This refers to me peaceful division and sharing of African territories among the European

Reasons for the scramble and partition of East Africa

The European super powers struggled to acquire colonies in East Africa due to the following
To get raw materials for their home industries.
They wanted to get market for their finished goods.
They wanted to get cheap labour from Africa.
They wanted to invest their surplus capital.
They wanted to get land to settle their surplus capital.
Some wanted to get political pride.

Names given to East African territories after European domination
Uganda – British protectorate
Kenya — British East Africa
Tanzania – German East Africa.


i) A protectorate is an inferior country controlled by superior country for economic

i) A colony An inferior country controlled by a superior country for permanent settlement.

The Berlin Conference

This was the conference held in 1884 to discuss the peaceful means of dividing up African states
among the European countries.

It was held in Berlin (City Of Germany) and chaired by Otto Von Bismack.
Some European countries that were involved in the Berlin conference of 1884

Effects of the Berlin Conference

  • Colonial masters had to stop slave trade in their colonies.
  • Colonial masters had to draw boundaries over their spheres of influence.
  • Each colonial power had to develop their colonies politically and socially.
  • Any European country was free and claim land in Africa.
  • No European country would extend its sphere of influence without informing other
  • colonial powers.

Note: The greatest effect of the Berlin Conference was that it led to the partition of Africa.
The process of partition
After going through scramble, the European powers agreed to divide and share African territories

Methods used by European powers to partition Africa.

Getting information from European explorers especially the geography of EastAfrica. .

signing agreements
Using violence.

Treaties signed during the partition process
The Anglo – German agreement of 1886.
The Anglo – German agreement of 1890 (Heligoland treaty)
The Anglo German agreement of 1886
The spheres of influence under this agreement.
The sultan was given Zanzibar, Pemba and other islands plus a strip of land along the coast of East Africa,
The-British took over Kenya.
The Germans got the Witu land (coastal area)

The Anglo German agreement of 1890 (Heligo Land) Spheres of influence under this agreement.
Uganda became a British protectorate.
Britain surrendered the Heligo land Island in the north sea to the Germans.
Zanzibar and Pemba became British protectorate.

Results of scramble and partition of East Africa.
Loss of independence of African states.
Loss of some African culture.
New boundaries of East Africa were drawn.
There was economic development e.g road construction, industrialization, e.t.c
Slavery was abolished.