Classification of living things (basic characteristics)

 Classification means grouping of organisms according to their characteristics.

 Basic characteristics of living things are:

  1. They reproduce.
  2. They respond to stimuli
  3. They respire
  4. They feed
  5. They grow
  6. The excrete 
  7. They move/locomote 

Groups of animals

 Animals in the environment are grouped into vertebrates and invertebrates.

 Vertebrates are animals with a back bone/vertebral column/spine.

Characteristics of vertebrates.

  1. Vertebrates have a back bone
  2. Vertebrates have endo skeleton.
  3. They have a water proof skin.

Classification of vertebrates.

Vertebrates are classified or grouped into two groups namely;

  1. Warm blooded vertebrates 
    1. Birds 
    1. Mammals 
  2. Cold blooded vertebrates 
    1. Reptiles
    1. Fish
    1. Amphibians

Warm blooded animals are vertebrates that keep their body temperatures constant or slightly change.


All birds and mammals 

 Cold blooded animals are vertebrates that change their body temperatures according to the environment.


Lizards, snakes, crocodiles, frogs, toads and fish  Learners’ Activity  

  1. List any four characteristics of living things 
  2. In one sentence explain the term vertebrates 
  3. Identify any one characteristic common to all vertebrates.
  4. Write one sentence to explain the following terms; 
    1. Warm blooded animals 
    1. Cold blooded animals  
  5. Give two examples of cold blooded animals 
  6. In one sentence give a reason why animals move.