This refers to the farming systems where farmers grow crops and rear animals mainly on large scale to get profit.
This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same farm land at the same time.
The farmer gets double income from both animals and crops.
Animals provide manure which is used in crop production.
Remains of crops e.g. banana peelings, maize stalks can be fed to the animals instead of being wasted.
Labour is well distributed or utilized throughout the year.
In case of crop failure due to pests and diseases, the farmers still gets some income from animals.
Land is better utilized (land unsuitable for crop production can be used for animal production).
The farmer and his family get a balanced diet.
It needs more capital to start.
Animals may destroy crops especially of fencing is not well done.
It requires more labour to manage both crops and animals.
It requires a lot of land.
It requires the farmer to have skills of managing crops and animals which is always not easy.
Generally the system lacks specialisation.
Individual projects take up a small portion of the land because much of it is shared by many enterprises.
Large scale animal rearing is known as ranching and it comprises products for sale
This may be dairy or beef production of a large well managed livestock farm.
Characteristics of ranching:
Large numbers of animals are kept.
There is a lot of capital investment needed.
Animals are kept especially for sale.
Only highly productive breeds are kept.
There is specialisation.
Pastures are well established and managed.
Selective breeding of livestock is done to get high quality breeds of livestock / products.
There is less movement of animals than in nomadic pastoralism.
Large areas of land are used.
Land is often individually owned and thus no communal grazing on the land.
More scientific methods of management are used.
Often carried out in drier parts of the country where there is little or no crop cultivation.
A few breeds of animals are kept.