Rainfall, Vegetation and Game parks

Conventional rainfall

It is formed when warm air is heated, expands and rises in form of vapour. (evaporation)
Condensation takes place and droplets are formed later falling as rainfall.
Conventional rainfall is common in the afternoons and occurs in areas with high evaporation rates and transpiration e.g around water bodies and forested areas.
It is accompanied by thunder and lightning.

Diagram of conventional rainfall.

conventional rain fall

RELIEF RAINFALL (OROGRAPHIC RAINFALL)
Mainly received in high land areas (Mountains or hilly areas)
It is formed when moist air (wind) is forced to rise over a mountain, cools and condensation occurs.
Nimbus clouds are formed resulting into rainfall . The side which receives rainfall is known as windward side and the side that receives little or no rain is known as Lee ward side.
Diagram of relief rainfall.

CYCLONIC / FRONTAL RAINFALL
It is formed when moist air meets cold air. The warm air which is lighter rises over the cold air when the warm air condenses, it falls as rainfall. The meeting point between warm air & cold air is called a front.
It occurs in the plain region of Karamoja, North and N. Eastern Kenya.
(Diagram of cyclonic rainfall)

INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Climate greatly influences human activities and it determines the activities done in an area.
Areas with plenty of rainfall, people carry out agriculture. (Crop Farming).

Areas that get little rainfall followed by long dry period do not favour crop farming and people carry out nomadic pastoralism e.g. in N. Eastern Uganda and N. Eastern Kenya, people here grow short yielding crops e.g. millet, sorghum.

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INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON CLIMATE
Some activities of man e.g. afforestation, agro-forestry, re-afforestation affect the climate of an area positively and others like deforestation affect it negatively.

WEATHER RECORDING INSTRUMENTS
A Stevenson screen keeps delicate weather instruments.
Problems caused by weather
● Floods
● Landslides
● Storms
● Drought
● Avoid settling in low lands
● Planting trees to act as wind breaks.
● Discourage deforestation. Use of lightening arrestors

TYPES OF FARMING IN E. AFRICA
Subsistence farming
This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals for home use.
Most farmers in E. Africa practice subsistence farming because it is cheap, it requires a small piece of land, simple tools and cheap labour.

Disadvantages of subsistence farming
● Leads to low yields
● Farmers get low incomes.
● Crop disease can easily spread.

Guarding against disasters above
● Use of proper farming methods
● Avoid settling near river banks

Mixed farming
This is growing of crops and rearing animals on the same piece of land under the same management.

Advantages
● Double income got
● Crops are used to feed animals.
● Animal dung provides manure.
● In case of long drought, the farmer depends on animals.
Disadvantages
● It is expensive to manage
● Requires skilled labour
● Requires a large piece of land.
● Animals can easily damage crops.

Plantation farming
This is the growing of one perennial crop on large scale e.g. cocoa, tea, coffee, sugar cane, rubber, sisal, tobacco.

Advantages
● High yields and income.
● Continuous harvesting.
● Provide employment
● Provides raw materials to agro based industries

Disadvantages
● It is expensive
● Requires a big piece of land
● In case of a disaster, high losses are realized.
● Requires skilled labour
● Promotes monoculture which leads to soil exhaustion.

Commercial farming
This is the growing of crops on large scale for sale.
Ranching
This is keeping cattle on large scale for beef production.
Products from a ranch are beef, hides for making belts, bag and shoes, horns for making buttons and glue.
Cow dung fertilizes the soil in making bio gas.

Diary farming
This is keeping cattle for milk and its products like butter, ghee , yoghurt, cheese.

Nomadic pastoralism
This is the movement of people and their animals looking for water and pasture.
Pastoral tribes are Karimajong, Masai, Turkana.

Arable farming
This is growing crop only.

Floriculture
This is growing of flowers on large scale for sale.

Horticulture
This is growing of fruits,vegetables and flowers for sale.

IMPORTANCE OF FARMING
● Source of food
● Source of raw materials for industries
● Source of income
● Source of employment

Problems faced by farmers
● Pests and diseases
● Poor farming methods
● Poor soils
● Unstable prices
● Lack of capital
● Poor quality seeds
● Poor storage facilities
● Poor transport

VEGETATION OF EAST AFRICA


Review the kinds of vegetation which include natural and planted vegetation.
Vegetation refers to any plant cover of an area.


Types of natural vegetation in East Africa are
Tropical rain forests/ Equatorial vegetation
Semi desert
Savannna
mangroove swamp / forests

Characteristics / features of each type of vegetation
Tropical rainforests/ Equatorial

Characteristics/ features of each type of vegetation
Tropical rainforests/ Equatorial vegetation
● They are evergreen
● Have tall trees
● Have thick undergrowth
● Have buttress roots
● They form a canopy
● Have hard wood trees
● Have climbing plants
● Found in areas with heavy rainfall

Mountain vegetation (Montane / Highland vegetation)
It’s composed of snow, bare rocks, heath and moorland, bamboo forests, rainforests and savannah.
It is greatly influenced by altitude.

Diagram showing Montane vegetation
Review the definition of grassland and give examples of grass found there.

Tropical grassland/ Savanna
● Divided into Savanna grasslands and woodlands
● It covers the biggest part of East Africa.
● Scattered trees and shrubs
● Some trees are resistant to dry conditions e.g. Acacia and bamboo.
● Savanna grasslands are sources of pasture for many wild animals.
● Most game parks are found there because there is good pasture, shelter, warm weather and availability of water.
● Covers the biggest part of E. Africa.
● Woodland savanna is known as Miombo woodland in Tanzania.
● The main activity in Miombo is Bee keeping.
● Miombo woodland is sparsely populated due to presence of tsetse flies

Control of tsetse flies
● Spraying
● Using tsetse fly traps
● Clearing bushes

Semi desert vegetation
● They receive little rainfall
● Trees have roots which go very deep
● Thorny shrubs and cactus trees
● Scattered and short grass
● Trees have thick bark
● In Uganda, it is located in North Eastern part, northern Kenya.
● Some vegetation e.g cactus are able to survive here because they can store water in the thick and fleshy parts.
● Main economic activity is Nomadic Pastoralism.

Mangroove forests/ swamps
● Hardwood and water proof timber
● Timber used for ship building
● They grow in or near especially in the coastal region of E. Africa.
● They have buttress roots.

Planted forests
● They are planted by human beings
● Provide building material e.g timber and furniture.
● Provide soft wood used in making paper, ply wood and soft boards.
● Species of trees found there are conifers, pines. Eucalyptus, cypress, spruce, fig etc.

Characteristics
Trees of the same species are planted in one area.
● There is little undergrowth.
● Planted in straight lines.
● Grow and mature fast.

Examples in Uganda.
● Lendu
● Magamaga
● Kakwa
● Kondo
● Mafuga in Bushenyi
● Bugamba in Mbarara.

FACTORS INFLUENCING VEGETATION DISTRIBUTION
Climate
● Rainfall determines vegetation growth. Vegetation cover varies form place to place depending on rainfall and temperature.
● Areas with reliable rainfall have thick vegetation compared to those with low rainfall that have scattered trees and shrubs.

Altitude
● Areas at high altitude experience cool temperatures which have great influence on vegetation. Mountain areas usually have plenty of rainfall and fertile soils.
● Vegetation changes with altitude.

Soils
Fertile soils support vegetation growth while areas with infertile soils have poor vegetation.

Human activities
Some activities of man support vegetation growth while others hinder vegetation growth.
Activities that affect vegetation negatively.
● Human settlement
● Industrialization
● Overstocking
● Deforestation
● Swamp drainage
Activities that promote vegetation growth
● Afforestation
● Re- afforestation
● Agro- forestry
● Good farming methods.

Drainage
This is the water supply of an area.
Good drainage influences thick vegetation.

Government policy
● Government policies can promote vegetation growth.
● Controlling environment degredation through NEMA.
● Supplying trees to farmers.
● Rural electrification reduces deforestation.

Importance of vegetation to people.
● Source of food
● Herbal medicine
● Provide building materials
● Fuel (wood & charcoal)
● Modify climate
● Provide shade
● Provide oxygen for human life & animals
● Controls soil erosion.

Importance of vegetation to animals
● Source of food
● Habital (home) of wild animals
● Provide shade.

FOREST CONSERVATION
This refers to the way of looking after forests in such a way that they aren’t destroyed and used for future generation.

Ways of conserving forests
● Afforestation
● Re- afforestation
● Agro – forestry
● Encourage land fallowing
● Setting enforcement bodies to fight forest destructions
● Avoid bush burning
● Controlled grazing
● Provide alternative sources of energy e.g. bio- gas.

EFFECTS OF POPULATION INCREASE ON VEGETATION
● Encroachment on forested areas
● Led to charcoal burning
● Encroachment increase has affected vegetation in these ways:-
● Encouraging on forests and grasslands for settlement agriculture and wood fuel.
● Re- afforestation changes vegetation patterns.

GAME PARKS, ANIMALS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE.
● Game parks are places where wildlife is protected by government for preservation.
● Wildlife includes insects, birds, plants and animals that live on their own.
Types of animals

  1. Herbivores
    These are animals that feed on vegetation (grass) e.g. elephants, giraffes, buffaloes, zebras, etc.
  2. Carnivores
    Animals that feed on flesh (meat) e.g. lions, hyenas, leopards etc.
  3. Omnivores
    These animals feed on both plants and meat e.g. pigs, warthogs.

LOCATION OF GAME PARKS IN E. AFRICA.
Map of E. Africa showing game parks.

Game parks and common animals fond there.
● Mgahinga and Bwindi are famous for mountain gorillas.
● Kidepo for ostriches.
● Murchsion falls for crocodiles and Hippos
● L. Nakuru for flamingoes
● L. Mburo for flamingoes

Importance of game parks
● Tourism
● Employment
● Education and research
● Development of infrastructure
● Source of food
● Promotes friendship through tourism
● Conserve wildlife for future generation.
● Promotes the local art and crafts industry.

Problems facing wildlife
● Encroachment on game parks
● Poaching
● Wild bush fires
● Animal diseases
● Insecurity
● Prolonged droughts.

Possible solutions
● Enforcing laws againstpoaching.
● Provision of veterinary services.
● Providing security
● Discouraging settlement in game parks.
● Encouraging tree planting near game parks