Culture is people’s way of life in any given society.

Examples of culture in our society.

a- Language
b- Way of dressing
c- Food
d- Religion
e- Funerals
f- Initiation ceremonies
g- Marriage ceremonies

Types of culture

a. Material culture e.g. clothes, crafts, weapons, food etc.
b. Non material culture e.g. religion, mode of conduct, taboos, security,
language, name etc.

Importance of culture in our society.

a- It promotes morals
b- It promotes peace among people.
c- It promotes unity among education.
d- Culture promotes informal education.


Economic organization: Refers to ways things are connected with trade, industry
and development of wealth in a society.
Economic activities: are activities carried out in order to earn a living or money.

Examples of economic activities carried out by ethnic groups.
-Crop growing.
-Iron smelting
-Salt mining etc.

Trade is the buying and selling of goods and services.

Barter trade.
Barter trade is the exchange of goods for goods and services for services.

Advantages of barter trade.

It enabled people get goods they couldn’t produce.

It promotes unity/friendship among people.

It does not involve the use of money..

It promotes chances of employment.

Disadvantages of barter trade.

There is double coincidence of wants.

There is no standard measure of value for goods.

It is difficult to move with goods over long distances.

It is difficult to get a trade partner.

It was difficult to balance the value the items.


Barter trade was replaced by monitory trade. Monitory trade is the use of money as a

medium of exchange.

Cowries shells was the first type of money to be introduced to East Africa by the Arabs.

Rupees was the second type of money to be introduced to East Africa by the Indians.

Local trade is the type of trade carried out within the country.

Bilateral trade is the type of trade carried out between two countries.

Money is a medium of exchange.

Qualities of a good money.

It should be portable.

It should be divisible

It should be acceptable in settling debts.

Should be durable.

It should act as a standard value.