Definition of Aids

The term AIDS stands for; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Acquired means got from outside the body

Immune means protected against or safe from disease, the body is always protected by white blood cells.

Deficiency means lack or shortage or AIDS virus destroys white blood cells and the body has shortage or shem.

Syndromes mean a collection or group of diseases and signs which show the presence of a disease.

AIDS is a pattern of disease symptoms which attach and destroy white blood cells leaving the body unprotected against infections.

Causes of AIDS

AIDS is caused by avirus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) commonly called AIDS virus.

Transmission of AIDS virus

  • AIDS virus can only survive in the human body.
  • The disease can be spread when body fluids of an infected person get into contact with  that of the healthy person.
  • Body fluids can be exchanged in the following ways;
  • Sexual contacts with an infected person.
  • Blood transfusion from an infected person.
  • Sharing or using sharp cutting instruments
  • From an infected pregnant mother to her newly born baby at birth.
  • From the mother to the baby through breast feeding.

AIDS virus can not spread by;

  • Normal shaking of hands
  • Bites from mosquitoes and bed bugs
  • Caring for AIDS patients
  • Sharing cutlery and cooking utensils
  • Hugging or embracing AIDS patients
  • Cleaning, washing beddings and clothing of people with HIV/AIDS

Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS


  • The major signs of AIDS are;
  • Herpes zoster locally called “Kisipi” which inflames the skin making it appear as scalded.
  • Chronic diarrhoea which may last for more than a week
  • Sudden loss of about 10% of the normal body weight.
  • Skin cancer which is also called Kaposis scarcomer, it causes itching and leads to scratching that leaves black spots.
  • Swollen lymph glands especially those of the neck and armpits
  • Oral thrush where by the tongue, gums, lips, and inside of the mouth plus the alimentary canal
  • Chronic cough which lasts long.


  • Tiredness without any proper cause
  • General body weakness
  • Persistent fever which is on and off
  • Loss of appetite

People who are at risk of getting HIV/AIDS

  • Sexually active people between the ages of 15-45years
  • Rape and defilement victims
  • Long distant truck drivers and traders who often have casual sex when away from their married partners for along time.
  • Prostitutes who sell themselves for sex to many partners.
  • Bar attendants.

Effects of AIDS/HIV

  • These are many effects of HIV/AIDS on infected person, family and community.
  • They suffer personal pain from the disease.
  • The family spends a lot of money on treatment, care and feeding.
  • They are stigmatized or isolated in the society.
  • Loss of family income if the bread winner dies.
  • Many children are orphaned and become child parents.

Prevention and control of HIV/AIDS

  • There is currently no cure against AIDS, so people need to guard themselves against the disease by;
  • ABC approach
  • Having one faithful sexual partner
  • Abstain from sexual intercourse until marriage
  • Avoid practices which involve risks of getting AIDS like tattooing, ear piercing.
  • Use of condoms during sex.
  • Screening blood before marriage and transfusion
  • Sterilizing medical instruments.
  • Disposing syringes and needles after use.

How can we manage AIDS patients

  • People with AIDS need support in many ways..
  • Eating a balanced diet.
  • Join good social groups to relax and avoid heavy work.
  • Should give up bad habits like smoking and drinking alcohol


  • Impotence is the inability of a man’s penis to become stiff or erect
  • Low sperm count
  • Is the inability of the testes to produce enough sperms
  • Penile cancer
  • This is the growth of abnormal cells that form on the penis

Enlargement of the prostate glands

This disorder is common in elderly men over 50 years of age


These are swellings called cysts that develop on the wall of the uterus.

Ectopic pregnancy

This is a condition when a fertilized egg implants itself in the oviduct

Ovarian tumours

These are masses of abnormal cells that form on the ovary

Cervical cancer  (cancer of the cervix)

This is the condition in which the cervix develop tumours

Inflammation of the oviduct.

  • Counseling, is a special form of communication through which a person is helped to control his/her feelings by a counselor

Types of counseling

  • Pre-HIV antibody test counseling
  • Pest-HIV antibody test counseling
  • Counseling HIV/AIDS patients

Importance of counseling

  • It prevents AIDS victims from committing suicide
  • Avoids spread of the disease to others knowingly.
  • To encourage people to continue to live longer and useful.

Effects of Hiv / aids


A) Loss of immunity as the virus destroys the white blood cells, the individual is attacked by several diseases. The disease germs take advantage of the weakened body.

These diseases which attack a weakened body are called secondary or opportunistic infections

b) Loss of income

c) AIDS leads to depression, frustration and worries to an individual.

d) An individual can be abandoned by the friends due to fear of the disease

e) The infections causes death.


  • Some children in the family may be infected with HIV / AIDS
  • Reduction on the labour force in the family
  • Children become orphans when parents die.
  • Loss of family property
  • Family members are separated when different relatives take care of them.
  • The family may experience shortage of basic needs in case the AID victims are parents


  • Loss of skilled man power
  • Causes child headed families
  • Break down of social order / families.
  • Shortage of productive population
  • It leads to low economic development

Prevention and Control of Hiv / Aids

  • Abstinence from sex until marriage
  • Having an HIV test before people get married
  • Having only one long sexual partner
  • Proper use of condoms
  • Blood screening before  transfusion
  • Health words should wear protective gloves to avoid contact with blood
  • Carrying out sex education  in schools and homes