Different pastrol systems
- Theses are Practiced in Kotido, Moroto, Rakai, Mbarara by the Bahima, Banyankole and Karimajong.
- Farmers live a nomadic way of life.
- Large number of animals are kept.
- Drought resistant crops e.g. sorghum, millet are grown.
- Overgrazing and bush burning are common.
Traditional farming system
These include the following;
- Shifting cultivation
- Bush fallowing
- Crop rotation
- Ley farming
- Agro forestry
- Bush fallowing;- is a system of growing crops on a piece of land until the soil is exhausted and crop yields decline after which the land is rested in bush form to regain fertility while cultivation continues on alternative pieces.
- Arable farming;- this is the growing of short term crops on arable land (cultivable land)
A well planned crop rotation programme should be followed to mantain the productivity of the arable land.
Ley farming; – is a system of alternating temporarily planted pasture with crop production.
Advantages of ley farming;
- Rested land is fertilized by humus from the grass dug into the soil.
- Land is utilized all the time instead of leaving it to rest.
- Infertile areas are fertilized by dung and urine.
- The planted grasses reduce on soil erosion.
- Helps to break pests and diseases life cycle.
- Leys provide cheap feeds for livestock
- Requires fencing and paddocking which increases costs.
- Requires water points in each paddock.
- More labour is required in management and establishment of pastures.
is a farming system where a farmer clears a piece of land and grows crops in it for a number of seasons until the soil is exhausted and crop yields decline; he then moves / shifts to a fresh land.
Characteristics of shifting cultivation
- It is subsistence oriented.
- Family members are the major source of labour
- Simple tools e.g. hand hoes, Pangas are used.
- Settlement by farmers is not permanent.
- Farming plots / fields are usually small.
- Food crops are mainly grown.
- Mainly practiced in sparsely populated areas.
- Quick maturing crops are grown and no perennial crops are grown.
- Forests are usually cleared by fire.
- Fire destroys pests and disease causing organisms.
- Constant movement by farmers ensures fresh soils thus ensuring high crop yields.
- Easy and cheap to carry out.
- There is enough time given to the land to regain its fertility.
- Burning also controls weeds.
- Enables other activities e.g. hunting to go on well
- Communal ownership of land does not allow land disputes.
- Plant nutrients e.g. potash are released quickly from the ash.
- Regular movement hinders land development.
- Burning of vegetation always destroys organic matter and useful living organisms.
- The system requires a lot of land and is not suitable for densely populated areas.
- A lot of timber will be destroyed due to destruction of trees by fire.
- Carbon, Sulphur and Nitrogen are lost by volatilization.
- Soil erosion and desertification may result.
- No soil conservation because people own the land communally and therefore, they do not care.
Conditions that favor shifting cultivation;
- Abundance of land
- Sparse population.
- Few crops grown for domestic use only.
- Communal ownership of land.
- When there is lack of modern farming techniques and facilities to improve the exhausted land.
- Pastoralism and Nomadism; Pastoralism is the keeping of herds of cattle, sheep and goats on practices (graze at random) OR
Pastoralism is a system of farming where the farmers look after livestock as their main occupation.