Drugs are chemicals that affect the way the body or the mind works.

Medical drugs:

Medical drugs are chemical substances that are used to treat or prevent diseases

Examples of essential drugs.

  1. Aspirin
  2. Panadol
  3. Piriton
  4. Chloroquin
  5. Septrin
  6. Tetracyline Tablets
  7. Pen V
  8. Valium

Types of essential drugs:

  1. Essential drugs are grouped into factory made drugs and local drugs.
  2. Factory-made drugs are those produced in industries. i.e. panadol, aspirin, chroloquine,  etc…

Uses of essential  drugs:

  1. Drugs can be used to treat diseases.
  2. Vaccines are used to immunize the body against diseases.
  3. Drugs are used relieve pain.
  4. Drugs can used to prevent germ infection.

Characteristics of essential drugs:

  1. Essential drugs are easy to use without the involvement trained health workers.
  2. Essential drugs are cheap and affordable.
  3. Essential drugs have a proven curative value.
  4. Essential drugs should be easily available in the community.

Advantages of using factory made drugs:

  1. Factory-made drugs are pure and clean.
  2. Factory-made drugs are properly packed.
  3. Factory-made drugs are produced under hygienic conditions.
  4. Factory-made drugs take a long time to expire.
  5. Factory-made drugs are easy to prescribe because the chemical composition can easily be established.
  6. Factory-made drugs have production and expiry dates.

Disadvantages of factory made drugs:

  1. Factory-made drugs are expensive.
  2. Factory-made drugs can easily lead to body poisoning through over dosage.

Drug prescription:

1.       This is the information given by ba health worker for proper and safe use of drugs.

2.       This information is always give in a prescription sheet.

          Factors to be considered when prescribing drugs

  1. Age of the patient.
    1. Strenghth of the drug.
    1. Level of the sickness.
    1. Weight of the patient.

Importance of drug prescription.

  1. Prevents under dose.
    1. Prevents over dose.
    1. Prevents poisoning.

Storage of drugs.

  1. Store drugs out of reach of children.
    1. Do niot keep poisonous chemicals in poisonous in soda bottles.
    1. Keep drugs in a cool dry place.

Local drugs:

  1. Local drugs are those drugs available in the environment.
  2. Local drugs include leaves from plants, roots, barks of trees, seeds, etc…

Advantages of local drugs:

  1. Local drugs are cheap.
  2. Local drugs contain both medical and nutritional benefits.


  1. Local drugs are sometimes prepared under in hygienic conditions.
  2. Local drugs take a short time to expire.
  3. Local drugs are not easy to prescribe because their chemical composition cannot be easily determined.
  4. The dosage is not known.
  5. They have a lot of impurities.
  6. They are not easy to prescribe.

Drug misuse:

  1. Drug misuse the use of drugs without following the prescription.
  2. Prescriptions are instructions under which a particular drug should be used.
  3. Drug prescriptions help to prevent overdose, underdose, poisoning.

Ways in which drugs are misused:

  1. Sharing drugs prescribed for one person can cause drug misuse.
  2. Wrong route application of the drug.
  3. Self-medication can cause drug misuse.
  4. Failure to complete the prescribed dose.
  5. Using many types of drugs to treat the same sickness.

Effects of drug misuse:

  1. Over dosage.
  2. Under dosage.
  3. Germ resistance to treatment.
  4. Miscarriages in pregnant women.
  5. Injection abscess.
  6. Fits and convulsion.

Drug abuse:

  1. Drug abuse is the use of drugs in a way that is harmful to the body.
  2. Drug abuse involves both legal and illegal drugs.
  3. Legal drugs commonly abused include tobacco, alcohol, pain killing drugs
  4. Illegal drugs commonly abused include opium, heroin, cocaine, Mira, gum, jet fuel, etc…
  5. A narcotic drug is a drug that relieves and brings about sleep.
  6. A stimulant is a drug that can increase physical ability beyond the normal operational levels.

Reasons why people abuse drugs:

  1. People abuse drugs to reduce chronic pain.
  2. People abuse drugs to enhance body performance.
  3. People abuse drugs to fit in a group of drug addicts.
  4. People abuse drugs because they are dependent or addicted to the drugs.
  5. People use drugs to enhance pleasure.

Effects of drug abuse:

  1. Abuse of narcotic drugs can cause mental disorders. i.e. insomnia. Insomnia is the inability to sleep.
  2. Drug abuse can cause mouth and stomach ulcers.
  3. Drug abuse causes heart coronary diseases.
  4. Drug abuse causes poverty.
  5. Drug abuse can cause body poisoning.
  6. Drug abuse causes self and family neglect.
  7. Use of narcotic drugs causes criminal behaviour.
  8. Drugs can cause job neglect and unemployment.

Control of drug abuse:

  1. Community members should be educated on the dangers of drug abuse and drug misuse.
  2. Community members addicted and who are dependent on drug should be rehabilitated and counselled.
  3. Avoid the company of people who are already on drugs.
  4. Enforcement of laws prohibiting the use and trafficking of narcotic drugs.
  5. Engage in drama or sports activities to avoid idleness.

Drug Dependence

  1. It is where a person relies on drugs to perform certain activities.
    1. Drug dependence usually results into drug addiction.
    1. Drug addiction is a state of being unable to stop using drugs.


Nacotic drug is a drug that relieves pain and brings about sleep.

A stimulant is a drug that increases physical activity and takes the user to the world of fantacy.

Drugs of dependency

  1. Cannabis/Marijuana/bhang/Njaga
    1. Miraa/khat/Mirungi
    1. Opium
    1. Cocain

Effects of drug dependency to the body.

  1. Insomia – inability to fall asleep.
    1. Shaking or tremour.
    1. Nervousness, irritability and inability to concentrate.
    1. Constipation.
    1. Mouth and stomach ulcers.
    1. Heart attack
    1. Loss of appetite.

 Developing life skills against drug dependency

  1. One should acquire as much relevant information as possible about the harmful effects of various types of drugs.
    1. Avoid company of drug addicts.
    1. Look out for suitable activities to occupy you such as ; Sports, Games, Music and dance, religious or community services.
    1. One should seek for help when he or she has personal or family problems.