factors considered when establishing a good farm layout
- The land should be surveyed and mapped to establish the actual perimeter and acreage.
- Soil should be sampled and tested to determine its properties.
- Field boundaries should be marked out for proper management of the farm.
- The field should be divided into suitable sizes for maximum management and utilization.
- Fencing of the farm: the fences demarcate the farm (perimeter fence) and separate different areas of the farm.
- Location and construction of farm roads; these should be wide enough to easy transportation.
- Water supply; clean and permanent water supply.
- Electricity / power supply; this is necessary to run the machines, light and provide heat on the farm.
- Buildings should be constructed according to the purpose of the building, nature of the soil and accessibility.
- The plan should be flexible to cater for introduction of new enterprises.
These are projects that are carried out/ practiced on the farm.
In a mixed farm, crops are grown and animals are kept on the same farm so that the whole farm land can be utilized sufficiently.
Common enterprises on a mixed farm include;
Apiculture (Bee keeping)
Aqua culture (fish farming)
Goat and sheep rearing.
Other aspects of the farm may include;
Pasture land for animal grazing.
Arable or cultivated land.
Soil and water conservation measures.
Farm tools and machinery.
Animal husbandry routines e.g. drenching.
For crop sector to have optimum production, the following should be done;
Proper seedbed preparation.
Timely planting of crops.
Use of clean and disease free seed. (planting materials)
Proper spacing of crops.
Keeping the crops free of weeds.
Proper application of fertilizers and manures.
Proper control of pests and diseases.
Harvesting the crops when they are mature and ripe.
Proper storage of crops.
Growing crops in a rotation.
Giving a rest period to the land to regain its fertility.
For livestock sector to have optimum production, the following should be done;
Control of disease and parasites in animals.
Proper feeding and management of animals.
Proper housing of animals.