Farming systems and practices
Farming systems refer to the decisions that farmers make to utilize their land in rearing crops and animals in order to produce food and other necessities for their benefit.
Farming systems are divided into 2 groups;
- Traditional / Local farming systems
- Commercial farming systems.
Traditional / Local Farming systems
The local farming systems in Uganda include;
- Practice in Teso in the districts of Soroti, Kumi, Katakwi.
- The land is generally flat and soils light / sandy.
- Ox cultivation is used
- The area receives a monomodal rainfall pattern.
- Major food crop is millet, cotton is the main cash crop grown.
Banana robusta coffee system
- Practiced around the fertile Lake Victoria cresent in districts of Mukono, Mpigi, Luwero, Wakiso, Kiboga etc.
- It has a bi-modal rainfall pattern (2rainfall seasons).
- Major cash crop grown in coffee; others include tea, cocoa and sugarcanes.
- There is a gradual change into modern dairy farming.
- Tractors and hoes are mainly used for cultivation.
- Land tenure system is individual with registered land title deeds.
Banana, millet and cotton system
- Practiced in districts of Tororo, Masindi, Ntungamo, hoima, Nakasongola, Kamuli.
- The area experiences a bimodal rainfall distribution which favours cotton as the main cash crop.
- The soils are silt clay loams of medium fertility.
- The system has more livestock compared to banana robusta coffee system.
- Practiced in districts of Lira, Gulu, Kitgum, Pader, Apac, Pakwach.
- It experiences a mono modal rainfall distribution pattern which favours annual crops.
- Main cash crops grown are cotton and tobacco, main food crop is finger millet.
- Land tenure system is communal.
- Food storage structures are common where the food is stored during the dry season.
- Inter cropping is commonly practiced.
West Nile system
- Is practiced in Moyo, Arua, Yumbe, Adjumani, Nebbi.
- Rainfall pattern received is monomodal.
- Cash crops include tobacco, cotton and Arabic coffee in the highlands.
- Food crops include cassava, finger millet, simsim, cowpeas, maize, beans etc.
- Some cattle and goats and sheep are managed at a subsistence level.
- Is practiced in mountaneous areas / districts of Mbale, Kapchorwa, Kisoro, Kabale, Bundibugyo, Kasese with fertile volcanic soils.
- Population pressure is high in these areas.
- Major food crops grown are banana, Irish and sorghum (mainly in Kigezi).
- Major cash crop is Arabica coffee, some tea is also grown.
- Contour ploughing is commonly practiced to reduce soil erosion.
- Livestock rearing is intensive / zero grazing due to high population pressure.