How did the Dutch expand their colony up to Fish River by 1795? 

How did the Dutch expand their colony up

  • The Portuguese first discovered the direct sea route to India in the 15th century
  • The Portuguese took a lead in the Far East and later declined in the 16th and 17th centuries.
  • This attracted the Dutch also to participate in the same trade
  • In 1647, there ship Harlem that they were using to Far East got wrecked around the Table Bay i.e. near the cape.
  • The survivors of Harlem for marooned for six months at the Table Bay.
  • While they were at the Table Bay, they experienced good and suitable climate, soil for growing fruits, vegetables and for trade.
  • On their return to Netherlands, they gave favorable/good reports to their government.
  • For a long time the Dutch merchants, they were thinking about a way of competing with the English trade.
  • The Dutch merchants now united and formed the united Dutch East Indian Company.
  • In April 1652, the directors of the Dutch east India Company sent Jan van Reinbeck at the cape with three ships.
  • He arrived at the cape with 120 people.
  • Their work was to build a wooden building for sick people, grow vegetables for sailors and treat the Khoikhoi kindness.
  • The company was responsible for the above activities and looking after settlers.
  • That proved to be expensive to the company and in 1671, it was agreed that the area be left for the colonist farmers.
  • In 1676, commissioner’s verberg agreed to set up a Dutch colony.
  • The company now released nine soldiers and allowed them to start colonization.
  • In 1680 and 1687, new settlements were set up at Stellenbosch and de pearl respectively.
  • The nine soldiers were not to pay taxes for 12 years and they were given 13 and half acres of land each.
  • Later two hundred French Protestants were allowed at the cape.
  • By 1685, the colony had 150 families.
  • In 1700, the colonialists were over 1300 people at the cape.
  • The company legal strict policies over the setters like being the only buyer of cape products, made the settlers to extend their farms beyond the cape.
  • By 1795, the colony had over 1500 settlers.
  • The colony had even expanded up to Fish River.
  • The colony now had districts of swellendam, graaf reinet, Stellenbosch and the cape.
How did the Dutch expand their colony up to Fish River by 1795?
  • The expansion of the cape colony started with the Dutch occupation at the cape.
  • Their settlement at the cape was accidental in 1647
  • It took place because of Harlem wreckage that gave the 1st landing site at the cape.
  • In 1652, the Dutch merchants sent Jan van Reinbeck to set up settlement at the cape.
  • Three ships of the Dutch merchants sent with 120 people.
  • They settled along river lies beck.
  • The settlement proved to be expensive on the side of the Dutch merchants.
  • In 1657, they agreed to colonize the cape and nine soldiers were the ones to start it.
  • The soldiers were given land at lies beck valley and each soldier was to have 13 and a half acres
  • By then the colony was still small with little people.
  • In 1665, commissioner verberg started expanding the colony and he set up new settlement beyond the cape.
  • The population now increased up to 150 families
  • By 1700, the colony was 55 miles in radius 
  • By 1750, the colony expanded to 255 miles in radius
  • The colony reached 500 miles radius in 1775
  • It reached fish river by 1780
  • The colony expanding northwestwards and eastwards.
  • During the expansion of the colony the Dutch were establishing the local commando defense unit to protect them against Africans.
  • In 1785, the colony had four major stations, i.e. Cape Town, Stellenbosch, swellendam and graafreinet each forming a district.
  • Cape Town had been established in 1652.
  • In between 1680 – 1700, they established Stellenbosch
  • In 1746, they established swellendam.
  • Graafreinet was established between 1778 – 1786.
  • The expansion of the cape colony was in phases and through force under the initiative of the Dutch farmers but not the company.
Reasons for the expansion of the Dutch colony (cape) up to fish river by 1795?
  • The expansion of the cape colony was not planned or coordinated.
  • Its expansion was due to economic, political and social reasons
  • Firstly it was due to the discontent of the Boer farmers at the cape.
  • The Dutch farmers wanted to get large pieces of land to increase their wealth.
  • The existence of unoccupied land in the interior of South Africa created the expansion.
  • The fixing of low prices to agricultural commodities by the company.
  • The need to adventure in the interior of South Africa.
  • Increase in population at the cape created a need for more land.
  • Military weakness of the Africans who could be defeated by the Boers
  • The nomadic and pastoral nature of the Dutch made them to expand up to the interior of South Africa.
  • The soils at the cape had grown infertile therefore they wanted the interior that had more fertile soils.
  • The Dutch had adopted new methods of agriculture like shifting cultivation and extensive farming that they had to expand.
  • The occurrence of diseases like small pox which weakened the
  • Africans to resist against the Dutch expansion 
  • The Dutch farmers wanted to be independent from the company.
  • Many farmers had run bankrupt therefore they wanted to try their luck else were.
  • Absence of good social services at the cape made them to look for better ones by expanding.
  • They wanted to create friendship with Africans because the company had failed to protect the Dutch against the Africans.
  • The company’s failure to discourage the farmers from expansion made them to expand.
  • The Dutch military superiority against the Africans made them to expand.
  • They were looking for favorable climate because that of the cape had become unfavorable due to decline in soil fertility.
  • They were looking for food because theirs had been spoilt the 17th century locust invasion.
  • The policy of paying 10% of their cattle to the British made them to expand.
  • The unfair policies of denying the Dutch farmers freedom of trade, free land for settlement limited market facilities made them to go away from them.
  • The company had taxed the Dutch farmers heavily therefore the opposed them by expanding into the interior
  • The Dutch pioneers had arrived at the cape with big families therefore as early as they arrived they encouraged their family members to get land for settlement beyond the cape.
  • Absence of natural barriers like higher mountains made the Dutch to expand their colony.
  • The company had conflicted with the settlers who moved away in protest that’s why they just expanded.
  • Denial to grow profitable crops like tobacco made them to expand the colony.

Problems Faced By the Dutch Pioneers at the Cape Colony

QN. What were the challenges faced by the early Dutch settlers at the cape?

  • Jan van Reinbeck and his followers faced the following problems in their social and economic life;
  • They suffered from homesickness because they were very far from home.
  • Absence of adequate geographical knowledge about the cape area.
  • Unexpected weather and climate changes like long periods of drought brought famine to them.
  • The occurrence floods which brought discomfort to them by sweeping away the temporary huts and tents
  • The pioneers had poor accommodation facilities i.e. wooden leaking houses 
  • There was hostility with the bantu, khoikhoi due to competition over land for grazing 
  • The pioneers ran short of funds hence bringing shortage in the supplies
  • They lacked enough and sufficient land for farming and settlement 
  • The soils were not fertile enough to facilitate high yields of cop production.
  • They lacked enough education facilities for their children at the cape.
  • The language differences between them and the khoikhoi limited them from getting what they wanted
  • Poor transport and communication facilities at the cape.
  • Inadequate marriageable women which led to homosexuality.
  • Inadequate market for their produced commodities.
  • Rivalry from European countries like Britain and France.
  • The invasion of locusts in the cape colony in the years around 1685 proved disastrous.
  • The high amount of land rent charged from them by the company. ➢ They were few in number so they suffered from boredom.
  • They lacked enough medical facilities fro the sick people 
  • Many Dutch settlers ere ex-soldiers therefore they yielded little due to little knowledge about agriculture.
  • They were restricted from growing profitable crops like tobacco.
  • Inadequate labour force in their farms.
  • Crop production costs were too high because crops like barley, wheat needed a lot of care hence getting low profits.

Attempts Made To Solve the Above Problems

Qn. Describe the achievements of the united Dutch East Indian Company.

  • They intermarried with Africans and imported orphan girls from their homeland hence reduced homosexuality
  • They built elementary schools under the Dutch reformed church to teach their children.
  • They constructed water reservoirs which were to provide water during the dry seasons.
  • Corrupt governors like Wilhelm Adrian were dismissed.
  • In 1707 many hospital were built to treat the sick people.
  • Farmers were allowed to sell their products to passing ships in increase of the market base.
  • Slaves were imported from countries like Madagascar to increase on labour force.
  • The prices of agricultural commodities were increased in 1658 to boost farmers’ revenue.
  • In 1657, many settlers were freed from company control and set up their independent farms.
  • The cape colony was expanded from about 55 miles to over 500 miles.
  • Many people were armed to provide defense to the villages.
  • Settlers were allowed to raid Africans and enslave them.
  • Interpreters were trained and one language was encouraged 
  • A large castle was built for defense under the commander Simon derstel.

Dutch Administration at the Cape

Qn. How did the Dutch east Indian company govern the cape colony between 1662 and 1795 or

How the cape was organized under the Dutch East Indian Company (DEICO)

  • The cape colony was organized in the interest of DEICO
  • It had four major instruments i.e. the council of policy, defense, justice and the Dutch reformed church
  • As a colony was under the governor who was being supervised by the company directors.
  • The governor was responsible for planning and administering the cape and other territories in Far East.
  • The governor resided at Batavia and was assisted by the council policy 
  • The council of policy was made up of 17 people including seven senior officials e.g. Jan van Reinbeck, Simon van der – stel, willen Adrian-der-stel etc.
  • The council was charged with supervision of judicial, executive, social and economic affairs of the cape.
  • It was also charged with all officials working for the company
  • It debated, considered and passed bills in the interest of the company.
  • The council of policy failed to represent the settlers and African interest in the cape colony.
  • It was the highest executive and legislation authority.
  • The council of justice was appointed and approved by the council of policy.
  • The council of justice had its headquarters at the cape colony.
  • It acted as the main court of appeal.
  • The governors at the cape never attended its meetings.
  • The magistrates were not independent and presided over local courts in each district.
  • In courts there was no justice because lawyers and judges were ignorant, unintelligent, inexperienced or corrupt because they were just appointed to fulfill the company’s interests.
  • In the interior, a matrimonial court was set up to advice the young Boers who wanted to marry them selves.
  • The chief of police acted as the prosecutor.
  • The defense council had Boer commando unit to defend the coast from foreign attacks.
  • The settlers formed burgher local military units to protect the settlers internally against Africans.
  • The Dutch reformed church was responsible for performing baptism and confirmation ceremonies.
  • It also confirmed the belief that the Africans were harm and the whites were sham as per the book of genesis 
  • It controlled literacy and education at the cape colony.

Factors for the decline of the Dutch East Indian Company 1795 (DEICO)

QN.what was the activities of the company at the cape?

  • Before 1795, the DEICO. Had practiced so many activities at the cape colony
  • It carried out vegetable growing and citrus juice.
  • It used to keep goats, sheep like merino.
  • They used to steel their commodity and sell their belongings to the resting ships.
  • The company collected taxes from the Dutch merchants • It forced Africans to provide forced labour in crop production.
  • In 1795, the British moved to the cape and took over administration.
  • It faced a lot of liberty from other European countries like France and Britain.
  • There was a lot of corruption among the DEICO offices hence incurring losses.
  • The company had weak administration like willem don stol who failed to administer the resources hence the company failure.
  • The company official failed to establish good relationship between Africans settlers and officials which contributed to the failure of the company. 
  • The company instituted policies which made so many settlers to feel fed up of the place hence its failure 
  • The transfer of financial headquarters from Amsterdam (Holland) to London in Britain made the company incur losses hence its decline 
  • The increase in technological knock out especially of Britain made her to out compete the DEICo hence its failure
  • The British occupation at the cape in the late 18th century between 1802-10 made the company to fail
  • The empire was big for the companies administer hence the company’s failure
  • The French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars caused insecurity in trade between European and countries like India, which affected the DEICO’s activities
  • British determination to take over cape might have resulted the company’s decline
  • The gaining of military superiority of Britain, which she to out compete the Dutch at the cape
  • French inversions of Holland in 1793 gave Britain excuse to take over the cape from the Dutch hence the decline
  • The flying of King William V of Netherlands to England who requested the British to take over the cape
  • The British occupation on the cape in 1795 reported favorable ground for the DEICO decline

Effects of the Dutch on The Africans

Qn. what were the impacts of DEICo to the people of South Africa?

  • During the Dutch occupation at the cape of South Africa had the bantu, khoikhoi and san as inhabitants 
  • Thus the dutch occupation made them to be affected socially, economically,politicaly positively and negatively
  • New diseases like STDs came up with the ducth settlers like smoking which cost so many people’s lives
  • There was intermarriages between the Africans and the dutch which gave new races like coloureds
  • Africans lost land to their whites
  • Africans copied bad behaviours from the ducth settlers like smoking,boosing, prostitution corning etc
  • Africans were hunted by whites which made them to migrate to isolated places eg Kalahari
  • Many wars rose up in an attempt for the Africans to protect their land , independent and other properties
  • Africans adopted western cultures like religion, dressing etc
  • Africans made to be slaves in dutch farms
  • Some Africans traded with the ducth people hence giving wealth
  • Africans lost traditional didnity to the dutch hence decline in africna culture
  • The dutch took khokhoi and san hunting grounds
  • African women were raped by the dutc giving rise to new races like coloured 
  • Africans became pooer and for the first time became beggars hence depending on whites for people Africans suffered from famine
  • The boers and the dutch made Africans defeated
  • Africans suffered from misery and anarchy due to expansion wars of the dutch
  • The dutch enslaved Africans
  • They carried out trade with the whites in commodities like beads, tobacco and threads
  • Africans lost their cattle to dutch during raids 
  • Because of raids famine increased amongst Africans