Importance of keeping farm records

Importance of keeping farm records

  • Importance of keeping farm records helps the farmer know whether he is making profits or losses.
  • For fair assessment of taxes
  • To enable the farmer to make decisions
  • In case a farmer dies with out writing will, it helps the family members to share property equally.
  • To enable the farmer know the history of the farmer.
  • Helps the farmer to plan and budget for the farm.

Types of Farm Records

  • Breeding records: These include reproduction, birth or death rates.
  • Production records: These show yields of various farm produce e.g. eggs, milk, meat etc.

Health records: These include when and which animals were sick, what treatment they got or which ones to cull.

  • Labour records: These include the number of farm labourers, type of work they do and their wages.
  • Field operations records: These are records of all different activities carried out on the farm ploughing, harrowing, planting etc.
  • Marketing records: These include where, when  and what prices various products were sold.
  • Inventory records: This is a record of all the things a farmer owns and the cash values of each item.
  • Income and expenditures: These are records of all the sales and purchases of the farm business.
  • Feeding records: These show the amount of feeds bought, consumed and methods of feeding.

PRACTICES WHICH HARM CATTLE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS

AT HOME

  • Beating animals
  • Over working animals
  • Not treating sick animals
  • Dehorning
  • Castration
  • Branding

IN THE FIELD

  • Over  beating animals
  • Overworking animals
  • Not giving animals adequate feeds
  • Improper disposal of polythene bags

IN   TRANSIT

  • Over loading animals
  • Transporting animals when some legs are hanging out of vehicles
  • Over tying animals during transportation.

IN THE ABATTOIR 

  • Slaughter animals brutally
  • Killing animals by banging their heads with hammer, axe or iron bars
  • Handling animals rudely when going to slaughter

Resources in the environment

A resource is something or object which is used for certain purpose.

Some resources are got from non-living things while others are got from living things.

Types of resources

  1. Non renewable resources

These are resources which can’t be replaced naturally once they are used up.

Examples are:

i) Minerals ores

ii) Crude oil (petroleum)

iii) Coal

  • Renewable resources

These are resources which can be replaced naturally before they get exhausted (used up)

Examples are:

i) Soil

ii) Water

iii) The sun

iv)  Air (wind)

v)  Plants

vi)  Animals

Resources from non living things

A non living thing is one without life.

Example

  • Soil
  • Water
  • Air and wind
  • Rocks and minerals
  1. Soil

Soil is a natural layer which covers the earth’s surface.

Soil is a renewable resource.

How is soil used as a resource?

It is used for growing crops

Soil is used for building houses  in our societies

  • Water

Water is a renewable resource when used carefully.

How water is used as a resource?

  • Water helps plants to grow
  • Water is used to turn turbines for hydro-electric power generation.
  • Water helps to dissolve food for easy absorption in the body of animals.
  • Air and Wind

Both are renewable resources

Air is a mixture of gases

Wind is moving air.

How wind is useful

  • Wind turns wind mills to produce electricity
  • Wind drives wind mills to draw water from the underground
  • Wind helps in winnowing of harvested crops.
  • Sun

It is a renewable resource

How the sun is used as a resource

  • The sun provides sunlight energy to green plants to make starch.
  • The sun provides solar energy that gives out heat and light energy to man.
  • The sun helps our bodies to make vitamin D
  • The sun helps in generation of solar electricity.

Rocks and minerals

A mineral is any thing that occurs naturally like a rock in the earth.

They are non-renewable resources.

Examples of minerals

  • Crude oil (petroleum)
  • Chalk
  • Clay
  • Copper
  • Gold
  • Tin etc

Minerals are non-renewable resources.

N.B: Minerals from which metals are got are called ores.

Rocks

A rock is a substance made up of minerals tightly packed together to form a solid.

Types of rocks

  1. Igneous rocks
  2. Metamorphic rocks
  3. Sedimentary rocks

Igneous Rocks

These are rocks formed when magma pours outside the earth as lava and solidifies

They are generally hard and impervious.

Examples

  • Basalt
  • Granite
  • Quartz

Sedimentary Rocks

These are rocks formed from broken particles of sand clay and mud setting in different layers. (strata) at the beds of water bodies like seas, lakes, rivers etc.

Sedimentary rocks are soft and porous.

Examples

  • Sandy rocks
  • Limestone etc

FOSSILS

  • Fossils are remains of plants and animals buried underground  many thousands of years ago.
  • They are found deep inside the earth in sedimentary rocks.
  • These remains are usually of bones or teeth of animals and roots, leaves or stems of plants.
  • Some times the remains are of mould of a whole body e.g. of a fish.

Uses of fossils

  • Fossils help geologists to determine the age of a place or rock.
  • Fossils help geologists to know how different plants and animals have existed and changed.
  • Fossils help to tell how land looked before.
  • Fossils show us how and where the different sedimentary rocks were formed.
  • Fossils help to tell what the animal or plant looked like, what it ate, where it lived etc.

Importance of rocks

  • Rocks form soil, which is important to our survival
  • Rocks make good materials for building and roads.
  • They tell us about the earth’s history.
  • They contain many valuable minerals

ALLOYS

An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals

AlloyCombinationUses
BrassCopper and ZincDecorating ornamentsMaking wires, tubing cases for bullets.
Dentist AmalgamGold and Copper, gold, copper and mercuryMaking coins.
SolderLead and TinJoining metals
Bronze  Copper and TinUsed for ornaments , bells , statues

STEEL

Steel consists of Carbon dissolved in iron.

Different alloys are made from steel

Examples of alloys made from steel

  1. Manganese steel

It is a mixture of steel and manganese

This is a very tough alloy.

It is used where friction may cause wear e.g. in railway points.

  1. Nickel steel

It is a mixture of nickel and steel

This alloy does not rust. It is used for making cooking and kitchen utensils and cutlery.

  1. Stainless steel

It is a mixture of cobalt and steel

This alloy is used to make permanent magnets because they retain their magnetism over a long period.

Why are alloys made?

  • To make the metal harder
  • To lower the melting point of the metal.
  • To make the metal more resistant to corrosion i.e. wear and tear
  • To increase the electrical resistivity of metals.

FUELS

A fuel is anything that burns to produce heat and light energy.

Examples of fuels

  • Fire wood
  • Charcoal
  • Crude Oil (Petroleum)
  • Coal
  • Fire wood and charcoal are renewable resources while crude oil and coal are non-renewable resources.
  • Coal was formed from marshy vegetables and plants which lived long ago and were buried under ground but due to heat and pressure they changed to coal.
  • Coal is burnt to get thermal electricity.
  • Crude Oil (petroleum) is refined through the process of fractional distillation.
  • The products after refining crude oil (petroleum) are; Petrol, diesel and kerosene.
  • These products are burnt to produce heat and light.
  • Petrol and diesel are used to run engines.
  • Oil was formed from animals remains which buried underground long ago and were changed to crude oil due to heat and pressure

Resources from the living things

  • A living thing is one which has life.
  • Living things include plants and animals.
  • Most of the resources from living things are renewable resources once they are looked after properly.

How are plants used as resources?

  • Some plants give us natural plant fibres like cotton, sisal, jute and linen.
  • Cotton and linen are used to make clothes while sisal and jute are used to make ropes.
  • Some plants are used as herbal medicine to cure certain diseases.
  • Some plants are eaten as food by man and other animals.

How are animals used as resources?

  • Some animals like merino sheep provide wool, used to make clothes, suits, blankets, carpets, curtains, bed sheets etc.
  • Silk worms provide silk used to make different types of cloths.
  • Some domestic animals provide skins and hides used to make bags, shoes, belts, etc
  • Cattle provide horns and hooves used to make glue.
  • Bees help to pollinate farmers’ crops, provide honey and bee wax.
  • Some animals like oxen and donkeys provide labour.

Conservation of resources

  • Conservation is the protection and proper management of resources in our environment.
  • Both renewable and non-renewable resources need to be conserved.
  • Resources like forests, wild life, water, soil, rocks, minerals need to be conserved.
  • Conservation of resources is done to keep them doer future use.

Conserving renewable resources

  1. Conserving renewable resources
  2. Wild life refers to animals and plants in our environment.
  3. Many kinds of animals have disappeared from earth and they are extinct.
  4. Other animals are about to disappear and we say they are endangered.
  5. Animals may become endangered or extinct because they are killed for their skins, horns, tusks.
  6. Some plants have also become endangered or extinct due to the increasing demand for wood and local medicine.

Advantages (importance) of conserving wildlife

  • Some mammals, plants and birds are a source of food for man.
  • Some animals and birds are valued as cultural heritage by some countries and clans.
  • Plants are homes of many animals, birds and insects.
  • Trees or forests help in the formation of rainfall.
  • Mammals, birds and trees species earn foreign exchange for the government through tourists.
  • Plants improve the atmosphere by balancing the amount of carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
  • Plants provide shade to man and other animals.

How to conserve and protect wild life.

  • Animals are protected by law in their habitat through the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA).
  • A habitat is a natural environment or home of a plant or animal.
  • Uganda wildlife Authority is a department which is responsible for wildlife in Uganda.
  • The animals are being taken care of in national game parks and game reserves.
  • Banning the selling and buying of wildlife trophies helps to reduce their being killed.
  • Fishes can be conserved by controlled fishing.
  • Some rare animals should be caught and let to breed in wildlife educational centre.

Conserving non renewable resources

  • Soil erosion should be controlled.
  • Soil should be kept fertile by using manure and fertilizers.
  • Plastic wastes like broken Jerrycans, polythene papers should be recycled.
  • Vehicles in dangerous mechanical conditions should be repaired to conserve fuel.
  • Petroleum products should be used wisely to prevent further exploitation of oil.

Conserving the natural vegetation

  • Over grazing should be discouraged because it causes soil erosion.
  • Bush burning should be restricted to certain areas.
  • Over stocking is dangerous because it leads to over grazing.
  • The government should limit population growth because more people means more land to be destroyed for housing and agriculture.
  • Cattle farmers should practice rotational grazing which later causes soil erosion.
  • Afforestation should be practiced.
  • Swamps and wetlands should be declared restricted areas.

HARVESTING RESOURCES

This is the collection of materials from the environment for the purpose of using them

a) Harvesting non – living resources

  • Obtaining  sand from dry river beds: scooping it with spades  and machinery
  • Mining sand from the ground

Harvesting minerals

  • By mining
  • Fossil fueling like oil
  • By drilling

Harvesting energy from the sun

Energy from the sun is known as solar energy

  • It can be harvested in the following ways
  • Uses of solar panels
  • Use of solar cookers
  • Use of solar driers
  • Use of solar heaters

NB : Solar panels trap sunlight and convert it into solar electricity

Solar heaters  +  cookers trap rays from the sun and changes into heat energy

Harvesting water

Ways of harvesting water

  • It can be collected from roofs using tanks and big drums
  • Rain water flowing on the ground is directed into dams .
  • Water can be drawn  from wells and brought to the surface using wind loss and electric pumps.

Harvesting energy from air

  • Wind can be trapped and used to drive wind mills
  • It can be tapped using sail to drive sail boat + dhows

Harvesting living resources

Plants resource

  • Hand picking ripe coffee berries , cotton balls
  • Plucking tea leaves from tea plants
  • Ready maize cobs are harvested by hands
  • By cutting sisal leaves

Harvesting wood

  • By pollarding
  • By coppicing
  • By lopping
  • By selective felling

Pollarding

It is the cutting off of the top part of a tree for use.

Diagram

Coppicing

It is the cutting off of the main part of the main part of the tree stem leaving the stump to give rise to new shoot.

Diagram

Lopping

This is the cutting of the side branch for use

Diagram

Harvesting animal resources

a) Meat

Animals are slaughtered , skinned and meat cut off from the carcass.

b) Skins and hides

Animals are slaughtered and skins carefully removed from the carcass.

c) Horns

The  horns are cut or sawn  off with the  saw from the head of the slaughtered animals

d) Milk

it is obtained by milking using either hands or machines

d) Honey :

it is extracted from honey combs.