Locomotion And Movement 

Locomotion And Movement 

Locomotion: The act of changing position by the entire body.

Movement: The act of displacing body parts while maintaining the whole body in one position.

The study of movements is called kinesiology.

The Basic Types of Movements

Movement involves these basic mechanisms.

The Basic Types of Movements

Movement involves these basic mechanisms.

Mechanism  Importance of the process to organisms involved
Amoeboid movementEnables amoeba to move about to (i) obtain food (ii) avoid dangers (iii) escape from energy.  Enables white blood cells (Leucocytes) like phagocytes, macrophages of the lymph and Kupffer cells of liver to (i) engulf antigen or microbes (ii) immigrate in the circulatory fluid.
Ciliary and flagellar movementCiliary movement enables paramecium to (i) avoid danger (ii) drive water and food into their gullet. In certain molluscs Ciliary movement facilitates gaseous exchange by passing water currents over the gills  In echinoderms Ciliary movement enables locomotion by driving water through the water vascular system. Ciliary movement of the cells lining the respiratory tract of humans drives away the microbes and dust particles towards the nose or mouth. Ciliary movement in the oviduct or fallopian tubes of human female moves ova towards the uterus. Ciliary movement in nephridia of annelids e.g. earthworms moves wastes Flagellum of sperms enables their swimming movement.  Flagellum enables the movement in certain protozoans like euglena
Muscular movement Muscular movements enable (i) animals to find food, mate up, avoid predators and unsuitable environmental conditions (ii) flow of contents in the gut and arteries (iii) positioning of eyes and external ears for effective functioning in some animals

Amoeboid Movement

Definition: is a crawling-like type of movement characterized by protoplasmic protrusion to form temporary feet-like structures called pseudopodia. ●Several theories (about 8) have been advanced about the formation of pseudopodia, but the most accepted now-a-days is

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Now the plasmagel tube contracts and the body moves forwards. Soon after this a new pseudopodium is again formed in this direction.

Description Of Ciliary Movement

Definition: the rhythmic beating of fine hair-like processes projecting from the cell membrane of certain cells (cilia).

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