Major cash crops in East Africa.

Major cash crops in East Africa.

Major cash crops in East Africa. These are Crops that are grown for sale in the town markets or for export. They include coffee, cocoa, sugar, vegetables, peanuts and non-foods, like tobacco and cotton. Huge areas of countries in the developing world have been turned over to cash crops.

 CropProduct (s)Place (s) they are grownConditions favouring their growth.
 CoffeeGun powder, beverages, coffee husks. / coffee drink,Arabic coffee- slopes of Mr Elgon and Kilimanjaro.   Robasta coffee- plains of East Africa.Fertile volcanic soils, reliable rainfallFertile well drained soils.
 CottonClothes, thread, cooking oil, cotton wool, Animal cotton cake, soap.Palins of East Africa (pallisa / Lira)Enough rainfall High temperature.
 TeaBeverageKasaku (Buyikwe district), Kasese, Fortportal   Kericho –Kenya (biggest in E. Africa.Acidic well drained soilsHigh altitude.Well distributed rainfall
 SisalRopes, bags, sacks, doormats.Tanga province in Tanzania.High temperatures
 SugarcaneSugar, sweets, animal cake.Kilomero valley in Tanzania (biggest)Plenty of water.
 TobaccoCigarattes       CigarsWest Nile districts (Nebbi, Arua, Moyo, Adjuman, koboko   TanzaniaWell distributed rainfall.Moderate temperature.
 CocoaBeverage /cocoa drink Cosmetics ChocolateMukono Bundibugyo  Plenty of rainfall.Well drained soils.Warm and wet climate.
 ClovesSpices, perfumes.Zanzibar /  pemba Islands BundibugyoHigh temperature Well drained soils.Humidity conditions.
 Oil palmCooking oil SoapCoast of East Africa Kalangala  districtWarm tropical climate.Plenty of rainfallWell drained soils
 PyrethrumInsecticidesCentral Kenya and TanzaniaPlenty of rainfall Worm temperatures
 Wattle treeTannin- used soften leather in the leather industries.KenyaModerate rainfall
 VanillaspicesMukonoEnough rainfall.
Major cash crops in East Africa.

Qn: What do you understand by the following terms?

  1. Tannin industry: where leather is turned in finished products e.g. shoes, belts, bags, etc.
  2.  Ginnery: place where cotton link is separated from cotton seeds.
  3. Spinning mill: place where cotton is processed into threads.

Modern methods of cultivation.

  1. Agriculture mechanization- The use of machines when growing crops.
  2. Machine used may include- Tractors, plough, combined harvesters, etc.

Advantage of agricultural mechanization.

  1. It saves time because a large area is cultivated I short time.
  2. It requires less human labour.
  3. It simplifies work.

Disadvantages of agricultural mechanization.

  1. It is very expensive.
  2. It requires skilled labour.
  3. It cannot be applied in hilly areas.
  4. It leads to unemployment of some people.

Irrigation farming.

  1. This is the artificial watering of crops from a near by water source.
  2. It is mainly carried out in area that receive little or no rainfall (semi-arid areas)

Methods of irrigation

  1. Drip irrigation.
  2. Overhead sprinkler.
  3. Gravitation flow/ canal irrigation.
  4. Bucket irrigation (manual)

Advantages of irrigation method.

  1. Crops can be grown throughout the year.
  2. It improves on crop yields.
  3. Semi arid areas can be turned into arable land.

Disadvantages of irrigation farming

  1. It is expensive to start and maintain.
  2. It leads to leaching of the soil/ soil exhaustion.
  3. It can lead to soil erosion when poorly used.

Examples of irrigation schemes in East Africa.

 Irrigation schemeCrop (s) grownWater source
 Kibimba (Tilda ) in UgandaRiceR.  Manafa
 Mweya – Tabere in KenyaRiceRiver Thiba
 Doho in UgandaRiceR. Manafa
 Ahero polit schemeRice. Maize, milletR. Nyando
 Kilombero valley in TanzaniaSugarcane, RiceR. Kilombero and Ruaha
 West Kano in KenyaRice and sugarcaneL Victoria.
 Galore in KenyaCotton, groundnutsL. Tana
 Mobuku irrigation scheme (Kasese district)Cotton, Rice, onions, tomatoes , beans.R. Mobuku

Major perennial crops and their location.

  • Kakira sugarcan plantation, Jinja district in Uganda
  • Lugazi sugarcane plantation, Mukono district in Uganda.
  • Kinyara sugarcane plantation, Masindi district in Uganda.
  • Kasaku tea plantation, Buyikwe district in Uganda.
  • Kericho tea plantation. The largest tea plantation in East Africa around Mt. Kenya.
  • Kirombero valley sugar cane plantation in Tanzania.

Ways Food is preserved in E. Africa.

In E. Africa food is preserved both locally and in a modern way.

Local means include:

  1. By smoking it.
  2. By sun drying it.
  3. By salting it.

Modern means include:

  1. By freezing it.
  2. By tinning it.

How is tobacco dried? By flu curing


  1. Why did the colonialists encourage cash growing?
  2. To get materials for their home industries.
  3. To  enable the Africans to pay taxes.
  • Why did Europeans introduce taxation in East Africa?

To get money to meet their administrative costs.

  • What are agro-based industries?

Industries which use agricultural law material e.g. kakira sugar industry, Mukwano industries, Textile industries, cooking oil and soap industries.  

  • How is farming important to Agro-Based industries.

      Farming is a source of raw materials to Agro-based industries.

  • What do you understand by:
  • Primary industry   Industries which produce raw materials e.g. farming, fishing, mining.
  • Secondary industries:  industries which process raw materials to make new products eg manufacturing industries.
  • Tertiary / service industry: Industries which provide services to people e.g. tourism, construction, etc
  • Traditional industries: These are industries that use local materials/ where local materials are used to make goods e.g. the craft industry.
  • Why do farmers prefer growing clonal coffee over other types?
  • It produces high yields.
  • It has bigger berries than other types
  • It is much resistant to diseases than other types.  
  • How is coffee harvested
  • By hand picking.
  • Why is pruning important in both coffee and tea.

Pruning removes unwanted branches reducing the rate of competition for food hence improved yields.

  • Write the following abbreviation in full

UCDA: Uganda Coffee Development Authority

  1. Which ministry is responsible for farming in Uganda ?

Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and fisheries.

  1.  State any four examples of fibre crops.
  2. Sisal.
  3. Cotton
  4. Hemp.
  5. Jute

Importance of farming in a country.

  1. It is a source of food production.
  2. It creates employment for the people.
  3. It is a source of raw materials to agro-based industries.
  4. Plantation farmers develop infrastructure in the country.

Ways of controlling famine in East Africa.

  1. Growing more food crops.
  2. Promoting food reserves.
  3. Growing drought resistant food crops.
  4. Through mechanizing agriculture

Problems faced by Ugandan farmers.

  1. Crop pest and diseases.
  2. Long spells of draught.
  3. Soil erosion.
  4. Poor transport and communication.
  5. Low prices of agricultural produce.
  6. Expensive modern farming tools.

Importance of cash crops in Uganda.

  1. They provide raw materials.
  2. They are a source of foreign exchange.
  3. They diversify the economy
  4. They earn the government income through taxation.

How governments can improve on the well being of farmers.

  1. Setting price regulation.
  2. Providing improved seeds and modern tools at subsidized prices.
  3. Promoting agricultural mechanization.
  4. Improving on transport to have access to markets.
  5. Encouraging farmers to form small joint groups eg cooperative societies.
  6. Giving loans to farmers to boost their farms.


What are co-operative societies?

These are groups of people who live and work together with same objectives/ aims

Importance of co-operative societies in East Africa

  • To teach farmers good methods of farming.
  • To market farmers’ crops.
  • To provide farmers with quality seeds and animals at a subsidized price.
  • To provide proper storage for the farmers’ produce.
  • To provide farmers with modern garden tools at a subsidized cost.
  • To provide better transport for the farmer’s produce.

Methods used to improve on crop yields.

Mulching, fertilization, application of mature, spraying of crop pest, irrigation, crop rotation, grafting.


  1. Livestock farming: Is the rearing  and management of domestic animals and birds for purpose.
  2. Dairy farming: This is the keeping of animals mainly for milk production.

East Africa, dairy farming is mainly done in the Kenyan Highland.

Reasons why Kenyan highlands favoured dairy farming.

  1. Presence of water and pasture for the animals.
  2. Improved veterinary services.
  3. The area has limited diseases vectors.
  4. The cool climatic conditions.

Reasons why the whites settlers settled on the Kenyan highland.

  1. Favourable climatic conditions for settlement
  2. Presence of fertile soils  for farming.
  3. The highlands were near Nairobi which would provide ready market to their dairy products.

How can diary farming be improved in East Africa?

  1. By cross breeding
  2. Planting improved pastures to feed the animals well.
  3. Improving on the veterinary services.
  4. Rearing exotic breeds of cattle.

Products got from a dairy farm.

  1. Milk.
  2. Yoghurt
  3. Cheese 
  4. Ghee
  5. Ice cream.


  1. Mention any four dairy farms you know in Uganda. (Children make research)
  2. Gesa dairy farm.
  • Why is milk produced in Mbarara transported to Kampala?

It is because of the ready market available in Kampala than Mbarara.

c) Ranching:

  1. This   is the keeping of cattle mainly for beef production.
  2. Ranching is carried out mainly in the savana vegetation due to presence  of pasture for the animals
  3. In Uganda, ranching is dominant in areas of singo (Mubende and Mityana), Nyabushozi, Mbarara, Kiruhura, Isingiro, Ishaka, Ntungamo, Buruli (Nakasongora, Ngoma, Nakaseke).
  4. Products got from cattle
  5. Hides and skins which are raw materials for leather bags, belts, coats, shoes, wallets,etc.
  6. Horns used to make bangles, necklaces, earring, etc
  7. Glue from cows hooves.
  8. Meat (beef)
  9. Milk.
  10. Give examples of ranching schemes in East Africa
  11. Kisozi ranching scheme
  12. Kabanyoro ranching scheme

 Qn.: Why are goats the most commonly reared animals in East Africa?

  1. They require a small place to graze.
  2. They are more resistant to diseases than other animals.
  3. They do not discriminate feeds so much than the cows.
  4. They can with stand the dry conditions much more than other animals.



This is the traditional way of keeping cattle. It includes;

  1. Nomadic pastoralism: The movement of cattle keepers with their animals from one place to another looking for pasture and water.
  2. Transumance: Seasonal movement of pastoralists from one place to another with their animals looking for pasture and water e.g. the Fulani of Nigeria.

Examples of pastoral tribes in East Africa.

  1. Karamajong
  2. Turkana
  3. Tepeth
  4. Masai
  5. Bahima
  6. Dodoth


  1. What is cattle rustling?

It is the stealing of large numbers of cattle among tribes.

  • What has the government of Uganda done to reduce cattle rustling among the Karamongo?
  • The karamojong have been disarmed.
  • The government has provided special Education programmes to the Karamojong to reduce illiteracy among them.

Importance of cattle pastoral tribes.

  1. It is used to pay dowry (bride price)
  2. It is a symbol of wealth.
  3. It is a source of food (meat and milk)
  4. It is a symbol of prestige.

Problems faced by cattle keepers in East Africa.

  1. Shortage of pasture and water.
  2. Parasites and animal diseases.
  3. Cattle rustling.

How can the government improve on the lives of pastoral people?

  1. Encourage them to keep less number of cattle.
  2. Extending artificial water sources to them e.g. bore hole / valley dams.
  3. Teaching them modern methods of keeping cattle.
  4. Encouraging them to grow drought resistant pastures.
  5. Supporting projects that promote irrigation farming in their areas.

Methods of keeping cattle.

  1. Paddocking
  2. Tethering
  3. Free range
  4. Zero grazing.


Tourism, sanctuary, game park, game reserve, game rangers, encroachment, giraffe, rhinos, hyena, buffalo, game cropping, wildlife, game, prey, herbivorous, predators, accommodation, tourist, guide, gazette.


  1. What is tourism?

This is the business of providing accommodation, transport, food and other services to tourist.

  • Internal tourism: Involves movement of tourists with in the country.
  • External tourist: Involve movement of tourist across international boundaries
  • A tourist: Is a person who travels and visits a particular place for pleasure or study.

Examples of major tourist attraction in East Africa.

  1. National Game Park and game reserves.
  2. Physical features e.g. mountains, the rift valley,
  3. Climate.
  4. Coastal beaches.
  5. Vegetation features.
  6. Drainage features e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, seas etc,
  7. Culture etc


  •  Wildlife
  • Wildlife comprises of birds, animals, insects and plants that live in the natural environment/ habitat.
  • The natural habitat may include:
  • Game parks.
  • Game reserves.
  • Forests.
  • Water.
  • Soil (land)
  • Bushes etc.
  • Animals are categorized into domestic and wild
  • Animals can be herbivores, omnivores or carnivorous.
  • Herbivores: These are animals which feed on grass.
  • Examples include: Zebra, buffalos,  antelopes etc.
  • They commonly stay in the savanna vegetation where there is plenty of pasture for them to feed on.
  • Carnivorous / flesh eaters; Theses feed on meat.

They commonly stay in the savanna vegetation where there is plenty of prey for them to feed on.

Examples of carnivores: lion, cheetah, leopard, hyena etc.

  • Omnivores; These are animals that feed on both grass and fresh

Example of omnivores, raccoon, people, pig, rats, bear etc.

LESSON (5&6)


  1. These are gazette areas where animals and birds are protected and hunting is not allowed.
  2. Game reserves: These are gazette areas where animals and birds are protected but hunting is allowed on permission.
  3. A zoo: A place where wild animals and birds are kept for people to view e.g. UWEC.
  4. Sanctuary: A place where birds are protected for people to view.

Importance  of wild life.

  1. It attracts tourists who bring income.
  2. It is a source of meat to people.
  3. It is used for research purposes by students.
  4. It is a source of raw materials to the industries.
  5. It creates employment to the people.

Importance  of game parks.

  1. They are sued for research purposes.
  2. They are a source of income through tourism.
  3. They preserve wildlife (rare species of animals)
  4. They are a source of employment to the people.
  5. They promote development of infrastructure in the places where they are locate.

Problems faced by game parks.

  1. Poaching
  2. Bush fires.
  3. Drought which causes shortage of pasture and water
  4. Animal disease and parasites.
  5. Remoteness of some places where game parks are located/ poor transport and communication.
  6. Encroachment on game park land e.g. through farming.

Solution to the problems faced by game parks.

  1. By employing more game rangers and wardens to control poaching.
  2. By enforcing strict laws against poaching.
  3. By ensuring tight security to control people from setting bushes on fire.
  4. By employing more veterinary officers to vaccinate and treat animals.
  5. The game park authority should relocate the people who encroach on the park land

Qn: Why are farmers not advised to set up their farms near game parks?

To avoid animals from attacking them and also destroy their crops.

Complete the following table

Attraction feature(s)Game park (s)
Mountain GorillasBwindi impenetrable, mgahinga
Flamingo birdsLake Nakuru
OstrichesKidepo valley national park
Antelopes, Crocodiles and HipposQueen Elizabeth National park, Muchison falls.
Sanctuary, hippos and buffalosKazinga channel.
Giraffe, lions and elephantsTsavo National park
Cheetahs, jackals, impala etcSerengeti national park.