Major resources of E. Africa.

A resource is a feature found in the environment used to meet people’s needs.

Types of resources are
● Renewable resources
● Non renewable resources

Renewable resources


These are resources which when used up can replace themselves after sometime e.g water, plants & animals (wildlife), human resource, land.

Non renewable resources


These are resources which when used up can not be replaced e.g minerals like copper, gold.

Examples of major resources in East Africa
● Land
● Water bodies (lakes & rivers)
● Minerals
● Climate
● Human resource
● Vegetation
● Animals (domestic & wild)
● Wind

Land


This is the most important resource where all resources are found.

Importance of land


● All minerals are found in land
● Supports agriculture
● Industries are set up on land
● Most transport facilities e.g. roads are built on land.
● Land supports growth of vegetation which is food for all people and animals.

Ways in which land is degraded
● Dumping polythenes and plastics on land.
● Over cultivation
● Swamp drainage
● Deforestation
● Quarrying
● Sand mining.
● Poor disposal of industrial wastes

Animals


There are two types of animals i.e. domestic and wild animals.
Domestic animals are those kept at home by man e.g. cows, camels, goats etc.
Wild animals are those which live on their own in the bush e.g. lions, elephants, hippos, chimpanzee.

Importance of domestic animals


● Provide meat and milk
● Used for transport e.g. donkeys, camels
● Used for ploughing e.g. oxen.
● Provide manure
● Provide hooves, hides and skins, horns.

Forms of animal rearing in E. Africa


● Dairy farming
● Ranching
● Nomadic pastoralism

Diary farming


This is the commercial rearing of cattle for milk and its products.
A dairy farm is a farm where cattle are kept on large scale for milk production.
In E. Africa, diary faming is mainly done in the Kenyan highlands
It was introduced by Lord Baron Delamere and later encouraged by white settlers.
In Tanzania, on the slopes of Kilimanjaro
In Uganda, it is done in S. Western Uganda – (kabale and kisoro districts

Modern methods of cattle keeping in Kenya highlands.
● Zero grazing
● Paddocking
● Bucket feeding

Factors that favour dairy farming in Kenya highlands


● Cool climate in Kenya highlands
● Presence of good quality pasture.
● Absence of vectors due to low temperature.
● Good transport and communication network.
● Ready market due to a large population.

Products from a dairy farm
Milk, butter, cheese, ghee, yoghurt, ice cream.

Importance of Dairy farming


● Provides employment
● Provides milk and its products
● Source of income.
Ranching
This is the large scale keeping of cattle for beef.
A ranch is a farm where cattle are kept for beef.
On a ranch, land is fenced and divided into paddocks.

Products from a ranch
● Beef
● Hides and skins
● Horns for glue and buttons.

Examples of ranches in E. Africa.
● Nyabushozi, Usuk, Kisozi – Uganda
● Kiptei group of ranches – Kenya

Nomadic pastoralism
● Pastoralism is the keeping of cattle for survival as a way of life.
● Nomadic pastoralism is the movement of cattle keepers with their animals looking for water and pasture for the animals.

Nomads mainly occupy semi- desert (arid) areas of E. Africa.
Examples of Nomadic tribes in E.Africa are:-
Turkana
Suk
Jie
Masai
Galla
Pokot
Karimojong
Baron.

Why do nomadic tribes keep large herds?
● It is their source of food.
● It is for cultural purposes
● For prestige.

Problems facing nomadic pastoralists


● Shortage of water and pasture
● Shortage of veterinary services.
● Animal parasites and diseases
● Cattle rustling among pastoralists
● Prolonged droughts leading to food shortage.

How can nomads be helped to lead a settled life?
● Constructing valley dams to provide water.
● Encourage them to set up ranches.
● Provide drought resistant pastures.
● Drilling boreholes.
● Involve in other economic activities.

How can cattle raiding be reduced among pastoralists?
Disarming pastoralists
Encouraging them to start settled farming.

THE CLIMATE OF EAST AFRICA.
Climate is the average weather condition of a place recorded for a long period of time.
Climatology – Study of climatic conditions
Climatologists – people who study climatic conditions.
Meteorology – study of weather
Meteorologists – people who study weather.

CLIMATIC REGIONS OF E. AFRICA


● Equatorial climatic region
● Mountain (Montane / Highland) Climate
● Semi – desert
● Tropical climate
● Coastal climate

EQUATORIAL CLIMATIC REGIONS


Characteristics
● It is hot and wet throughout the year.
● Has two maximum rainy seasons in a year.
● Receives heavy rainfall all the year between 1750mm – 2250 mm
● High temperatures above 25°C.
● Found in highland areas in south western Uganda. Convectional rainfall is received in
this area.

Ref: Sharing our world book 6 pg 41 climate graph.
Drawing and interpreting the climatic graph of Kisangani (pg 44 bk 7) further research.

This climate is experienced in areas that lie 5°N and S of the Equator.
In E. Africa, it is found near L.Victoria.

NOTE: Explain the effect of North East trade winds on this climate.
Economic activities
● Lumbering
● Tourism
● Farming
● Bee- keeping (Apiary)

MOUNTAIN (MONTANE) CLIMATE

Mainly found around mountain regions
Receive relief rainfall
Temperature is influenced by altitude i.e the higher you go, the cooler it becomes.
Mountains with permanent snow are
● Rwenzori
● Kilimanjaro
● Mt. Kenya

This climate is found in western Uganda, Kenya highlands and southern highlands in Tanzania.

Ref : Sharing our world bk 6 pag 43

Bar graph should be drawn and interpreted accordingly.
Economic activities
● Lumbering
● Farming
● Tourism
● Mining
● Dairy farming

Task
Let pupils explain why most rivers flow from mountains.
Why is it difficult to describe mountain climate?

Tropical climate


● It is outside the equatorial zone but within the tropic of cancer and Capricorn.
● It covers most plateau lands in E. Africa.
● It mainly support of Savannah vegetation
● Don’t receive rainfall throughout the year
● Has two rainfall seasons btn Mar and May and Sept –Oct.
● Rainfall ranges btn 750 mm – 1000 mm in a year.
● Temps are high throughout the year and convectional rainfall is experienced.
● Temps are high throughout the year with an average of 27°C.
● Also called Tropical continental climate
● It has a wet and dry season.

Ref: Sharing our world bk 6 pg 42

Economic activities
● Tourism
● Farming / Crop growing
● Mining
● Cattle keeping