Methods used

  • They used a number of methods / tactics / Techniques to achieve their goal of colonizing Uganda.
  • In most cases, the method used always depended on each society’s attitude.
  • In most cases, more than one method was used.
  • Singing of treaties; The treaties were later used to claim effective occupation e.g. 1900 Buganda agreement, 1901 Ankole agreement and 1902 Toro agreement.
  • Use of force; in areas that were hostile to the British, direct military confrontation was used e.g. in Bunyoro and Acholi Land.
  • Use of collaborators; These were opportunists who were used by the British to spread colonial rule to other areas e.g. Semei Kakungulu was used by the British to extend colonial rule to the Eastern parts of Uganda e.g. Busoga, Bukedi, Budaka, Bugisu and Budama.
  • Divide and rule; This was used in areas where two or more unfriendly societies were encouraged to remain hostile to each other e.g. the British supported Buganda against Bunyoro.
  • Intimidation and threats; These were used to scare off would be resistors e.g. Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda and Omukama Kabalega of Bunyoro were exiled at the Seychelles island on the Indian Ocean.
  • Ineffective rule; This method was used in areas where the British were not in a hurry to take over e.g.  Karamoja region.
  • Use of Missionaries: – These softened the hearts of Africans with wonderful preaching and they managed to convinced African chiefs to sign treaties e.g. in Buganda.
  • Use of traders (chartered companies); they used IBEACO and it did a lot of ground work for the British e.g.  it defeated rebellious societies, encouraged war  between protestants and  catholic in Buganda. All this created disunity among Africans which made colonialism easy.
  • Use of explorers; these established good working relations with African chiefs and also provided the geographical information which was later used by the colonialists.
  • Construction of military forts; These were set up in areas which had hostile communities e.g. Fort Patiko in Acholi land, Fort Portal in Western Uganda, and Fort Lugard in Old Kampala.
  • Construction of infrastructure; These were for consolidations of colonial rule and for effective occupation of their areas of influence e.g. Uganda Railway.
  • Gun – Boat diplomacy; through this, the British would simply parade their weapons to scare off African resistors e.g. in areas like Busoga.
  • Use of treachery / carrot stick diplomacy; In some cases, the   British pretended to be friendly to the Africans only to turn around later e.g. they befriended Kabaka Mwanga but later sent him to exile.

Extension Of Colonial Rule In Uganda

  • In July 1890, the Heligoland treaty was signed between the British and Germans.
  • It was to define the boarders of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.
  • In 1894, Uganda was declared a British protectorate which confirmed British control over Uganda.
  • In December 1895, the Busoga chief Wakholi signed an agreement with the British to bring Busoga under the British protectorate.
  • In March 1900, the Buganda agreement was signed and it confirmed and Buganda as a British Protectorate.
  • In June 1900, the Toro agreement was signed with Omukama Daudi Kasagama to confirm Toro as a British protectorate.
  • In August 1901, the Ankole agreement was signed with Prime Minister Nuwa Mbaguta and this made Ankole part of the protectorate.
  • No agreement was signed with Bunyoro because of Kabalega’s hostility to the British.
  • The British used mercenaries from Buganda, Busoga, Sudan to crush Kabalega’s resistance.
  • Buganda agents like John Miti was sent to Bunyoro to help the British in administrating.
  • During the same period, the British were also using collaborators e.g. Semei Kakungulu to extend colonial rule to Eastern Uganda.
  • By 1901, Kakungulu had annexed Bugishu, Bukedi, Budama, Teso, Budaka and Kumam areas.
  • The British who had neglected Northern Uganda started opening up posts e.g. in Gulu in 1910, Lango in 1910, and Kitgum in 1912.
  • In 1913, the British crushed the Lamogi rebellion and they established their rule in Acholi land.
  • In 1913, military rule was established in Karamoja.
  • By 1914, West Nile region was annexed to the British protectorate from Sudan.
  • By 1920, almost the whole of Uganda was under British rule except for Karamoja which was still under military rule.
  • Karamoja only became part of the British protectorate in 1926.

Problems faced by the british in their extension of colonial rule.

  • There were so many revolts/ rebellions against British rule e.g. Lamogi rebellion in Acholi (1911 – 1912) Nyangire rebellion in Bunyoro (1907) and Nyabinji rebellion in Ankole.
  • In societies where there was no central authority e.g. in Northern and eastern Uganda the British faced a problem of creating such authority.
  • The Kiganda model of administration failed miserably because most areas did not have centralized governments.
  • Most of the Baganda agents that were used by the British were simply opportunists e.g. Semei Kakungulu, Sir Apollo Kaggwa.
  • There was language barrier because each tribe in Uganda had its own language yet a few people by that time had learnt English.
  • Poor transport and communication facilities i.e. Roads to Northern and North Eastern Uganda were very poor.
  • They faced a problem of introducing a uniform economic activity in Uganda e.g.  Ankole rejected cash crop growing.
  • Religious wars that were fought in Buganda created confusion and insecurity in the protectorate.
  • Diseases like malaria and sleeping sickness made in work to the colonial administration very difficult.
  • They failed to understand the cultures of the people of Uganda and this led to resistance from the local people.
  • The cost of administration was very high e.g. they had to pay the collaborators e.g. Semei Kakungulu.
  • Lack of manpower also hindered the work of British administration e.g. they only had 40 trained white personnel to supervise the whole of Uganda.
  • The Baganda who first co-operated with the British later turned against them and started making their work difficult e.g. in 1896, Kabaka Mwanga ordered for the killing of the 30 Uganda Martyrs.
  • With the growth to Nationalism in Uganda, political parties were formed which always demanded for independence e.g.  D.P and U.P.C.
  • The 1900 Buganda agreement caused more problems because it gave land that had previously belonged to Bunyoro to Buganda.