Population and Health concerns.

1.     The number of people in the given area is what we refer to as population.

2.     These people have various concerns that affect their way of living. These concerns may also affect their health.

They include:-

  1. Poor sanitation
  2. Anti social behaviours
  3. Poor water supply and
  4. inadequate food.


  1. Sanitation is the general cleanliness to promote public health.
  2. Poor sanitation is mostly brought about by poor disposal of wastes.
  3. To control poor sanitation, human wastes (urine & faeces) should be disposed off in latrines. These if not properly disposed off are a source of many diseases.
  4. Other wastes should also be properly disposed off in rubbish pits, garbage bins etc. This doesn’t only reduce disease spread but also controls accidents like cuts.
  5. Keeping proper hygiene both and home hygiene helps to maintain proper sanitation.
  6. Ensure proper housing to control over crowding, overcrowded places are difficult to clean and spread a lot of respiratory diseases.

Anti social behaviours:

1.     Acts or habits that are not acceptable in society are called anti social behaviours.

Examples of Anti social behaviours –   

  1. Smoking   
  2. Alcoholism 
  3. Drug abuse 
  4. Stealing
  5. Some of these anti social behaviours can lead to serious health problems.

Effects of anti social problems.

  1. Drug abuse and smoking may lead to respiratory diseases and brain damage.
  2. Alcoholism causes liver problems, circulatory disease and brain damage.
  3. Stealing leads to the victim to lose life or be jailed .

Causes of Anti social behaviours:

  1. poor parental guidance
  2. bad peer groups influence
  3. Misleading advertisements on radio and T.V.
  4. Lack of parents (orphans)
  5. Poor social environment.
  6. Bad social environment.

Poor Water Supply:

Since water is very important in the community we need a clean source of water. However, some places do not get the clean water supply or enough water.

This leads to spread of diseases. These diseases spread by contaminated water are referred to as water borne diseases. Lack of enough water may lead to diseases caused by not using enough water to clean ourselves. These diseases are known as water cleared diseases. Line: scabies, trachoma.

Water contact diseases can also be a result of poor water supply.

Adequate Food:

When the population has enough food for today and for the future, we say they have food security.

People need enough food to stay healthy and to get energy to do work.

i)      Inadequate food supply may be caused by pests that destroy crops, bad weather like drought, storms etc wars where people are  not able to grow enough food, over population etc.

ii)      Lack of enough food supply leads to malnutrition diseases like kwashiorkor, measles etc.

Activities that address health concerns.

The population should ensure that it performs activities that will address health concerns. Such activities include:-

i)      Care for homes

ii)      Taking health surveys

iii)     Carry out primary health care activities

Care for homes.

This involves setting up a system and structures which will ensure that the home will be kept clean.

Structures that can be set up are:-

i)      Latrines that should be 10m from having house 30m from water source.

ii)      Rubbish pits; these should be burnt regularly.

iii)     Proper housing structures where living houses are separate from animals.

Health Surveys

These are activities done to collect data (information) about the state of health in an area.

Community leaders should organize a system and programme where they can get reports about the health status of the members. This helps to organize and plan for the health needs of the people.

Health surveys activities include;

i)      Observing and recording the health of members.

ii)      Interviewing or asking questions to members concerning health

iii)     Recording all health problems observed in the community during visits

All these help to plan for the people in the community.

Carrying out PHC activities.

These are activities which involve all the community members to ensure good health.

The include: –   

i)      Immunizing people to prevent infections

ii)      Enforcing proper sanitation in an area

iii)     Ensuring that there is enough and proper water supply

iv)     Vector control

All these will go a long way in ensuring health by reducing infections.

Health Education.

This is a means of sharing information about health to increase awareness.

Health education enables a member to be aware of:-

i)      Causes of diseases.

ii)      Mode of spread of a disease.

iii)     Days of preventing the spread of a disease.

iv)     How to use the available health facilities

How health education can be passed on to the public.

This can be done using posters, songs, films, drama and plays, and through meetings.

It could also be through child-to-child programmes where the elder children teach the young ones about the values of good health. Health education aims at preventing infection and other problems. This can only be achieved when people practice what has been learnt.

Collecting information and data on human population.

The collection of information on human population can be done by government of Uganda through the ministry of finance planning and economic development.

They can d o this through the population census or by using the community leaders to collect the information. Information includes; demography, housing information, immunisation and available health h services.

The information collected is used for:-

i)      Identifying the common problems in communities

ii)      The population increase and compare it with the available facilities to see whether they are enough

iii)     Planning to see how they can improve upon the health of the people and their standard of living.


This is the study of changes in the number of births, deaths, marriages and disease infections in a particular area.

Importance of demography.

i)      The deaths and births rate in a certain area helps to plan for the facilities to be provided i.e. the drugs needed for immunisation treatment and their qualities.

ii)      Helps to find out the common diseases that affect the community.

iii)     It helps to plan the health education to give the medicine to plan to buy and stock in the health centres.

iv)     The number of births, marriages and deaths help to indicate the population growth.

v)     This helps to plan for other infrastructure and services.

Housing information.

The data collected involves;

i)      The number of houses, their sizes compared to the population

ii)      The type of houses built; permanent or temporary

iii)     Ventilation of the houses

iv)     Animal housing i.e. do animals stay in the same house with people?

v)     Housing information helps to know the living conditions of the people

v)     It helps to plan also for the health education strategy to take.

Immunisation information:

The information collected may include;

i)      The number of children and their ages

ii)      The number of immunised children in an area

iii)     The diseases they have been immunised against

iv)     Problems that affect the immunisation process

v)     It helps to recognize whether there is need for more immunisation in an area

vi)     To plan for the facilities

Available Health Centres.

This involves information on:-

i)      Number of health centres in an area and distances from each other.

ii)      Number of private and public health centres.

iii)     The services given by each health centre.

iv)     Number of health workers available and their qualifications.

v)     Number of ambulances.

These help to plan for adequate health services to the people.