REASONS FOR CARRYING OUT A POPULATION CENSUS
- To enable the calculation of per capita income so as to indicate the standard of living. The per capita income is the ratio of the total income to the total population of a country.
- To establish the size of a country’s population so as to facilitate planning. For example planning for employment, housing and educational facilities requires accurate population figures.
- To establish the distribution of the population. This focuses on age, gender (sex), level of education and spatial distribution. This enables the government to allocate resources appropriately in the country.
- To establish the quality of a country’s population. This mainly focuses on the level of education and the health status of the people in a country. This aids man power planning in a country.
- To establish the size of the labour force. The government wishes to find out the number of people ready for employment such that it puts in place a conducive environment to ensure that the jobs are available.
- To determine the natural population growth rate. This is through computing the number of live births per 1000 and population and the number of deaths per 1000 population so as to find out whether the population is increasing or not.
- To establish the rate of migration/ to determine the artificial population growth rate. An increase in the number of immigrants with a fall in the number of emigrants represents an increase in in the artificial population growth rate.
- To solicit for foreign aid. This is through presenting the population statistics to international aid agencies or friendly countries. The aid agencies like USAID, IMF, World Bank and IDA always request for population figures to determine the area/ sector and the amount of aid to be given.
- To establish the number of nationals and non-nationals in a country. This is to help the government design appropriate policies on ownership of property, work permits and immigration.
- To obtain population figures to demarcate political units like constituencies, town councils, municipal councils and town boards. The decision to accord any of the above statutes depends on the existing size of the population
To obtain population figures to demarcate political units like constituencies, town councils, municipal councils and town boards. The decision to accord any of the above statutes depends on the existing size of the population
- Population density
This is the number of people per unit area of land for example per square kilometer.
- Population explosion
This is the sudden rapid sharp increase in population of an area over time such that existing resources become too inadequate to support the population.
Effects of population explosion
- Leads to over exploitation of resources.
- Leads to food shortages
- Leads to land shortages
- Leads to increased dependence burden. Ø Leads to increased poverty.
- Worsens balance of payments position. Ø Leads to environmental degradation.
- Leads to increased income inequalities.
- Leads to demand pull inflation.
- Unemployment is increased.
- Distorts government projected planning.
- Dependence burden
The dependence burden refers to the section of the population that is below 16 years and above 64 years which is economically unproductive and thus reliant on the working population for survival. Negative effects of a high dependence burden
- Low savings
- Underutilization of resources
- Heavy burden on government to provide social services
- Low productivity in the economy
- Low labour supply
- Dependence ratio.
The dependence ratio is the ratio of the dependents to the total population.
Given that the working population in a country is 12,000,000, the young population is 14,000,000 and the elderly population is 4,000,000, calculate the country’s dependency ratio.