Reasons why the British took over Natal 

Reasons why the British took over

Why did the British get interested in Natal after great trek?

  • Reasons why the British took over, The British never wished the Boers to live as independent political organization
  • The British wanted to control the Boers politically at natal
  • Traders set up port Durban that is at the coast of Natal was too poor there should be assisted by britian 
  • Britain feared that Boers could join with Africans and attack them
  • Boers were enslaving Africans again which the British did want
  • Britain wanted to use natal as a center for her imperialism
  • Natal had very fertile soils, which the British wanted to use
  • Rumuors spread to the British that natal was gifted / endowed with a lot of minerals the British to take over natal 
  • Britain felt that natal was strategic point also protect her sea route to India against the Boers
  • The Boer administration at natal was weakening that is why the British took over natal 
  • The British thought that the Boers were military weak therefore wanted to protect them from strong Africans
  • The British wanted to stop the extending of racism 
  • The existence of so many wars on the eastern frontier or boarder of the cape made the British to occupy natal as a way of solving them
  • The British wanted to discourage further Boer trekking by providing that also the British can reach there 

Reasons why the British annexed (took over) Natal

Why did the British get interested in natal after great trek?

  • The Boer republic of Natal ended
  • Natal became part of the cape colony
  • Many Boer settlers were forced to leave natal to countrywide
  • It led to clashes between the migrating Boers from natal with Africans
  • Africans were made to leave their land to the Boers
  • Wars between the British and the bores became invetibale because enmity increased the Boers and the British
  • British occupation of natal led to the establishment of natal sugar plantation
  • It led to the signing of sand river and Bloemfontein convention between the Boers and the British
  • Since the Boers were given orange free state and Transvaal racism increased
  • Africans were made to leave their property to the Boers like cattle
  • It led to the introduction of British culture, language, education  

Results of British annexation of natal.

What were the impacts British occupation of natal?

  • The Boer republic of Natal ended
  • Natal became part of the cape colony
  • Many Boer settlers were forced to leave Natal to countryside
  • It led to clashed between the migrating Boers from Natal with Africans
  • Africans were made to leave their land to the Boers
  • Wars between the British and the Boers became inevitable because enmity increased the Boers and the British
  • British occupation of Natal led to the establishment of Natal sugar plantation
  • It led to the signing of sand river and Bloemfontein convention between the Boers and the British
  • Since the Boers were given orange free  state and Transvaal racism increased
  • Africans were made to leave their property to the Boers like cattle
  • It led to the introduction of British culture, language, education etc 

The establishment of Boer republic of orange Free State

Describe the foundation of the Orange Free State or how was the orange free state established?

  • The Boer trekkers established this
  • The Orange free state was established between river vaal and orange
  • At first it was reffered to as orange river colony
  • It was established after the defeat of the Ndebele who were under Mzilikazi
  • The defeated Ndebele were chased away from the areas in 1836
  • In 1843,more boers joined orange free state from Natal
  • In the same year, Napier (the Boer leader) met Moshesh of Basuto and fixed the southern boundaries of the state
  • In 1844 the constitution was drawn and the parliament was set up in the area
  • Pontigietor was the chief engineer in constitutional making and remained the commander of the state
  • However after making the constitution the Boers at the Boers at the orange free state
  • In 1852 the Boers went to sir George cathcat (the British officer) and requested for their independence
  • In 1854 the Boemfontein convention was signed and gave the Boers their independence
  • Joshua Hoffman became the first president and later was replaced by “ Jacob Boshaff”
  • The British allowed the Boers to have guns but not to sell them to Africans
  • The orange free state was now recognized

The Establishment Of Transvaal

  • The Boer trekkers were the founders of the republic
  • At first, it was established near River Lipopo but later another place was chosen across river Vaal
  • The founders of the place were military trekkers from the cape
  • They regarded themselves as political refugees
  • A group led by colliers acquired land between Vaal and Kei rivers
  • The land was stolen from chiefs Makwena and more was got from the Ndebele after a serious fight
  • Cillers pritorius and maritz now started fighting for leadership To eliminate conflicts among them selves for commanders were elected
  • Later colliers and maritz drew up a constitution, which was to establish the Transvaal republic
  • Towns where built like Ohrigstad, Rydenberg etc
  • The parliament was now elected with the council of judicial power
  • The British also took over the new Transvaal and made it part of their colony
  • During the sand, river convention the British expected to give the Boers their independence
  • Pretorious became the first president who was the son of Andris Pretorious and later was taken even by the Paul Krugger  

WHY THE AFRIKANER NATIONALISM INCREASED AFTER 1850? or WHY DID THE BOERS UNITE AFTER 1850?

  • After long stay in Africa, the Boers started calling them selves Afrikaner
  • Before 1850 the Dutch speaking people called themselves the Boers
  • Their languages, pastoral culture and religion were near to be phased out by the English culture
  • The development of new Afrikaner language made their crowd
  • The Boers priority that they didn’t join Africans
  • The gaining of equal rights to no rights by the British encourages their unity
  • The signing of sand river convention and Bloemfontain gave selfrule to the Boers
  • The closeness of Orange Free state and Transvaal encouraged their unity
  • The annexation of Griqualand by the British with the aim of stealing Boers diamond form orange free state gave them to unite
  • The fear from African attacks like the Zulu, Bapedi made them to unite over their enemies
  • The discovery of minerals in Boer states made them to unite so that they can protect them

Mfecane and The Growth Of New States

What Is Mfecane?

  • This can also be called an upheaval that took place to south Africa
  • Mfecane were conflicts between the eastern bantu tribes of south Africa 
  • The world mfecane was an Nguni word” meaning a period of trouble that existed between 1800 and 1850
  • It was characterized by untold suffering, destruction of property and loss of human lives
  • The Sotho tribe called it Defcane”
  • It was a period of forced migration in south Africa
  • It can also be described as the period of terror starvations and crushing of people
  • It was a period of crisis among the zulu, Mthetwa, Ndwande , Ndebele , Sotho and other tribes
  • Mfecane came up during the first half of 19th century in Natal region
  • It was a period when new powerful states emerged like Zulu empire
  • This is the period when stronger powerful men like Shaka came into the existence
  • Mthetwa of Dingiswayo , Zwide of Ndwandwe and Sobhuza of Ngwane started it
  • It was capitalized and reached  to its worst state during the period of shaka 

Political, Social   and Economic Situation of South African Before Mfecane

Describe the organization of South Africa before Mfecan.

  • Mfecan took place on the eastern side of south Africa.The present day of natal region and Zulu land
  • The natal people were organized on clan basis
  • The population was too small much land was not occupied
  • By 1760, over 200 chiefdom’s existed
  • Because of the much chiefdom, internal instabilities, fraction and disagreements existed among them
  • Most of the societies were cattle keepers and cattle were as
  • important for dowry, food, clothes and ceremonies
  • Marriage from the same clan was a taboo but they encouraged intermarriages amongst the clans
Causes of mfecane

Why did the great upheaval take place?

  • The people began with dingiswayo , sobhuza and zwide and accelerated by shaka
  • The increased population around natal areas made them to fight for land
  • The rise of how political chief dom like Mthetwa, Ndwandwe and Ngwane
  • The increase in animal population made them to scramble for pasture 
  • The conflicts that had long existed between nzwide and dingiswayo
  • They needed to create large political power unit
  • The need to control trade activities that existed at the delagoa bay
  • The boer activities that blocked the nguni line expansion
  • Dingiswayo’s was encouraged to attack his neighbor by the use of guns that he had learnt from Roben Cowern
  • The attack made on Tlokwa, Ngeto and Ndwandwe that made them to be defeated and shifted to other places where they caused problems
  • The emergence of shaka of the Zulu state caused mfecane because of his policies
  • The training of strong army by shaka led to the fighting of his neighbors societies
  • The introduction of cow horned type of fighting
  • The introduction of assegai that was the weapon of mass destruction
  • Shaka’s policy of destroying of living and non- living thing while fighting worsened the mfecane people
  • The death of shaka’smother Nandi intensified the situation in 1827
  • Many people were killed for having mourning in adequately at the death of Nandi
  • The killing of over 3000 old women being accused for Nandi’s death
  • The making of cultivation ,drinking of milk illegal and not to play sex for over 3 moths after Nandi’ s death made mfecane

Effects of mfecane

Explain the impacts of mfecane in South Africa 

  • Loss of property like cattle
  • Increased insecurity and fear among people
  • There were famine because people were denied agricultural the death of Nandi
  • Many people were forced to migrate from Natal region
  • Zulu state expanded
  • New states were formed for example swazi , basuto etc
  • Small states like Ndwadwe were defeated
  • Shaka became the fierce man in south Africa
  • Poverty became a slogan of a day
  • Shaka’s policy of fighting was acquired that is to say assengai by other states
  • Many tribes were dissolved especially to Zulu people
  • It gave new people on the international scene like Mosheshe, sobhuza etc
  • Many people like dingiswayo died
  • People suffered from misery, starvation etc
  • It made the interior vacant which attracted the Boers hence great trek
  • Families disintegrated

The Course Of Mfecane

Explain the course of mfecane.

  • Mfecane took place in phases
  • It started in 18th century for the control of resources
  • The major societies were Mthetwa Ndwadwe and Ngwane
  • Between 1800-1888 Mthetwa  fought with other kingdoms
  • Later zwide with sobhuza also fought were sobhuza was defeated
  • The defeated sobhuza decided to move northwards and settled in the presence day of Swaziland
  • Here he started a new nation that came to be called Swaziland nation
  • Another conflict rose up between dingiswayo and zwide 
  • Dingiswayo was defeated and killed at the hiitop by the zwide’s men
  • The courageous trained man shaka picked the defeated disappointed dingiswayo army and took them
  • Shaka united the dingiswayo’s army with his father’s army of zulu
  • He trained the united army and used it to defeate the zwidde This brought the end of mfecane because the people who had started it had been finishes  

Shaka and the Zulu kingdom

Political, social and economic organisation of zulu kingdom before 1860.

  • Zulu nation was located in southeast Africa, east of Drankensberg Mountains
  • Today it is the modern natal province of south African republic
  • The ngoni migrants started it as small chiefdom
  • By the 18th century Senzakona led it
  • In the 19th century the place had bared so many chiefdoms and clans
  • In the same century a military leader shaka united them and became a Zulu nation
  • The king became the head of all aspects of life that was even despotic
  • The army was the source of power under Ndunas
  • The ndunas helped the king
  • The king had the power of appointing and dismissing ndunas
  • The title of kingship was hereditary from father to son or brother
  • The kingdom was characterized by civil wars between the loyalists 
  • In the kingdom, the army were placed in various places and kept in different colors of cattle for east identification
  • Women acted as spies to the king
  • The Zulu were divided into true Zulu and amazulu
  • The king was not to be questioned or looked in eyes
  • The ndunas were not to hold meeting without the king’s permission
  • The king was a chief priest and chief judge
  • The conquered people were absorbed into the Zulu culture
  • The captured kings were to remain leaders of their people as long as they respected the zulu king
  • Ndunas were always appointed from the commoners but on merit The Zulu king had representatives in areas where conquered people settled
  • The Zulu grew pumpkin, calabash, maize and peas got from whites  Cattle , sheep were also reared
  • They carried out hunting
  • It had numerous clans
  • Routed wealth was shared among the regiments
  • The Zulu people were organized in age regiments
  • The carried out black smithing [smelting] and made spears, knives
  • They raided their neighbors like Xhosa for cattle 
  • The king was the owner of the land 
  • They carried out trade in order to get guns from guns from whites
  • They had a common language and cultures which they copied from the san
  • They believed in Mwali as their mighty God
  • The old and disabled people were always put to death
  • The initiation ceremony marked the entry into a new age set [regiment]
  • Marriage was after retirement at the age of 40 years 

Shaka’s achievement for zulu state.

How did Shaka create and expand the Zulu nation?

What were the causes of Mfecane?

What factors were responsible for the growth and expansion of Zulu kingdom

  • Shaka was a son of Senzagakona and mothered by Nandi
  • He was born as a bastard around 1783
  • He grew up under his maternal uncle because his father’s family had rejected him
  • During his childhood, he had a miserable life and being looked at always by his peers
  • That made him grow up with a fierce determination, carriage, intelligence and strong vision
  • He started his youthful stage as intelligent soldier of Dingiswayo’s army 
  • While in Dingiswayo’s army his father died
  • He was later promoted as a commander in the Dingiswayo’s army
  • He went and killed the successor of his father Segujane and became the chief of the Zulu

Later Dingiswayo’s enemies killed him during mfecane period

  • His army was collected by Shaka and incorporated in Zulu nation
  • Trained the two armies together
  • Introduced short stabbing spear called assegai
  • Traditional leaders were dismissed and Ndunas were appointed on merit to replace them
  • Soldiers received constant highly disciplined trainings
  • He created permanent age regiments 
  • Soldiers were not allowed to marry up to the age of 40 years
  • Soldiers were not trained bare footed
  • The army stayed in permanent settlement like Bukuza , Berebere
  • Introduced cow horned type of fighting
  • He introduced scouts and spies to report their enemies
  • He recruited the conquered youth into the army
  • He made the old people and their wives be killed and the children be put in the army 
  • He employed medical workers and assistants to help the seriously wounded and take away the dead bodies during the battle
  • He gave soldiers very big shields for protections
  • He created women army
  • He abolished all un necessary ceremonies like circumcision
  • He benefited the British who supplied him with guns
  • He introduced surprise attack of fighting
  • He attacked and defeated the neighbors for example Ngwane, Zwide Tlokwa etc
  • He forced the Zulu language to be spoken by all people in the Zulu land
  • He ensured food security in the kingdom