RIVERS OF EAST AFRICA

RIVERS OF EAST AFRICA;

A river is a mass of flowing water on the earth’s surface.

TERMS USED IN RELATION TO RIVERS;

1. Source -starting point of  A RIVER

2. Tributary -small river joining the main river.

.Distributaries -small rivers branching off the main rivers.

4. Delta –Division of a river into several channels at its mouth.

5. Confluence Is where two or more rivers meet.

6. Estuary – A wide river mouth.

7. Mouth -End point of a river.

STAGES OF RIVERS;

A river is mainly categorised into three major sections naamely.

  1. Upper course (Youth stage)
  2. This is the stage where river starts from and normally located on higher altitude.
  3. Water flows at fast speed in a v-shaped valley
  4. There is much erosion due to fast flow of water.
  5. This stage of a river is suitable for H.E.P.generation.

B) Middle course (Mature stage)

Is the second stage of a river -.A river changes its shape from V to U shape.The water begins to reduce its speed due to the increased width of the river.

Meanders start developing

UGANDAKENYATANZANIA
R. KatongaR. TanaR. PAngani
R. NileR. GalanaR. Ruvuma
R. Kafu R. Rufiji
R. Ssezibwa  
R. Nkusi  

C) Lower course (old stage).

Water flows at reduced Speed characterised by flood plains, many meanders are seen/developed and Ox-bow lakes are formed in this stage due to a high level of deposition.

Characterised by deltas and estuaries.

TYPES OF RIVERS;

There are two types of rivers in E.Africa and these are;

  1. Permanent rivers
  2. They flour throughout the year.
  3. Rivers which flow season to season throughout the year.

Examples of permanent rivers

  • R. Nile
  • R. Rufigi
  • R. Pangani
  • R. Galana

EXAMPLES OF SEASONAL RIVERS

  • Rivers which only flow during wet season.ie
  • R.Mpongo and Agogo in Uganda.
  • R.Laghorn and Turkwel in Kenya.

FORMATION OF RIVERS IN E.AFRICA.

Most rivers in E.A originates from highlands and large water bodies which are on a higher altitude. some rivers in E.Africa changed their flowing direction long ago due to earth’s movement i.e. uplifting of the western plateau in Uganda made river Kafu , Kagera to flow east wards, it also made river Nzoia, Yala and Mara to flow west wards and drain into L.Victoria.

NOTE

  • Many rivers originate from highlands areas because of too much rainfall experienced in these regions and melting Ice.
  • Most rivers in E.A are not navigable because of many water falls and rapids, some rivers are seasonal.

ACTIVITY.

MAJOR RIVERS OF E.AFRICA.

A) R.NILE;

  • It is believed that R.Nile has its source in L.Victoria near Jinja.
  • It flows from the south to Northern direction b’se of the plateau of Uganda is tilted/slightly bent to north of Uganda.(its source is at a higher altitude.)
  • It is longest river in the world and Africa in particular.
  • It is divided into 3 parts/sections ie Victoria Nile from its source to Albert Albert Nile from L. Albert to Nimule.
  • It’s greatly affected by sudds (floating vegetation) in Sudan which greatly hinders navigation.
  • It drains through two lakes in Uganda ie L.Kyoga and L.Albert and ends into the Mediterenean Sea in Egypt.

TRIBUTARIES OF R.NILE;

  • Bahr-el-Ghazal in south Sudan
    • R.Sobbat from Ethopia.
    • Blue Nile from L.Tana in Ethiopia
    • R. Atbara from Ethopia.
  • In Uganda its difficult to sail on R.Nile because of;
  • Presence ofwaterfalls and rapids.
  • Resistant hard rocks.

QUESTIONS.

1. Give two reasons why navigation on R.Nile between L.Victoria and Albert is difficult.

2. State the economic contribution of R.Nile to industrial development in E.A

3. Name the section of R.Nile where we find Karuma and Murchission falls.

4. Why does the Nile flows towards the northern direction.

5. Mention the two dams located on R.Nile in Uganda.

6. Name the European explorer who was the first to see the source of the Nile.

RIVER TANA;

  • It starts from the eastern plateau of Kenya and drains into the Indian Ocean.
  • It is the main river in Kenya.

A number of dams have been built, they are about seven to generate H.E.P.These are reffered to as Seven folks dam project.

RIVER RUFIJJI.

  • It starts from the eastern plateau, flows across the coastal plains and drains into the Indian Ocean.
  • Other rivers found in Tanzania are; R.Pangani, R.Ruvuma, which makes a boundary between Tanzania and Mozambique.
  • On River Rufigi we find Kidatu dam and Fmteradam.

RIVER KAGERA.

Kagera originates from Nothern side of L. Tanganyika  and drains into L.Victoria. It forms a natural boundary between Tanzania and Uganda as well as Rwanda.

IMPORTANCE OF RIVERS TO PEOPLE IN E.ARICA.

  • They help in the formation of rainfall.
  • They provide water for irrigation.
  • They attract tourists.
  • They are sources of fish
  • Some are used to generate HEP.
  • Used for recreation.

PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH RIVERS AND LAKES.

  • They are breeding places for vectors.
  • They can cause seasonal flooding.
  • They harbour dangerous water animals.

QUESTIONS.

1. Which river forms a natural boundary between Tanzania and Mozambique?

2. Identify the importanceof physical features to man.

3. State any one in which physical features inlfluence each of the following;

1. People   2. Plants    3. Animals

4. How do lakes and rivers contribute towards national development?

TROPICAL QUESTIONS LOCATION OF EAST AFRICA.

  1. State the difference between latitudes and longitudes.
  2. List down any two important latidtudes drawn on the map.
  3. Point out any two ways of locating places on a map.
  4. What is the grid reference of E. Africa on the globe?
  5. Which countries border E. Africa on the following directions
  6. South West
  7. North
  8. Why is Uganda referred to as a Land locked country?
  9. Which city in Africa is crossed by the Greenwich meridian?
  10. Henry is standing at the Park facing the North direction. If he turned 45 ̊clockwise, which new direction will he face?
  11. Name any two physical features in E. Africa that are crossed by the Equator?
  12. If it 2:00pm at the Greenwich, what time of the day will it be at town R which s 45 ̊E of the Prime Meridian?
  13. Apart from telling time, state any other importance of longitudes.
  14. Define the term time zone.
  15. Write the following abbreviations in full
  16. GMT
  17. E.A.S.T
  18. Give one reason why people in Mombasa see the sun earlier than the people in Kabale.
  19. How is the location of Uganda said to be a disadvantage to its economic development?