A seed is a developed fertilized ovule

A seed is a mature fertilized ovule

Groups of seeds

Monocotyledonous seeds

Dicotyledonous seeds

Monocotyledonous seeds

Monocotyledonous seeds are seeds with only one cotyledon

These are also called cereals or grains

Examples of monocotyledonous seeds

  • Maize seed
  • Millet seed
  • Oat seed
  • Wheat seed
  • Rice seed
  • Sorghum seed
  • Barley seed

Structure of a maize seed.

maize structure

Functions if each part of a maize seed


Endosperm stores food for the plant


Plumule develops into a shoot system


Cotyledon absorbs food from endosperm and supplies to the embryo during germination


Radicle develops into a root system


This is made up of the plumule and radicle

Embryo develops into a new plant

Testa (seed coat)

Testa protects the inner parts of the seed

Style scar

Style scar is the part where the style was attacked

Stalk scar

Stalk scar attaches


  • Plumule sheath protects the plumule
  • Radicle sheath protects the radicle
  • A maize is a fruit because it has two scar

Dicotyledonous seeds

Dicotyledonous seeds are seeds with two cotyledons

Examples of dicotyledonous seeds

  1. Coffee seeds
  2. Beans
  3. Soya bean seeds
  4. Groundnut
  5. Simsim
  6. Mango seed
  7. Orange seed
  8. Avocado
  9. Tomatoes
  10. Cowpeas.

Structure of a bean seed

Bean seed 1

Function of each part of a bean seed

Testa (seed coat)

Testa protects the inner parts of a bean seed


Cotyledon provides food to the germinating embryo