St. Luke’s gospel
St. Luke’s gospel. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John record the life of Jesus Christ and his ministry in the four Gospel books.
We shall trace the life, and ministry of Jesus Christ as written by St Luke to Theophilus. St Luke was amedical doctor.
Old Testament Prophesies About The Messiah
Introduction: Read 2 Samuel 7:13, Isaiah 7:10-16
Meaning: The word Messiah is from a Hebrew word meshiach, which means the anointed: thus a
Messiah is one called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him.
A prophecy refers to a prediction of what will happen in future.
Messianic Prophecies: These are those predictions that were made by the prophets to describe the coming of a righteous King who will rule Israel according to God’s will.
The origin of the Messianic prophecies in the Bible starts with prophet Nathan’s prophecy to King David.
The Roman ruled the Israelites before the birth of Jesus. They hated the Roman leadership and longed for somebody of their own to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.
The prophet of Israel (the Old Testament) communicated a message that God would send a messiah to bring all people into a lasting relationship with Him.
The prophets who were sent had different ideas about the Messiah. Their ideas about the Messiah were different from the Jewish expectations – whereby they hoped for political King to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.
But the prophets were talking about a religious one – to free them from sin.
Topic Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
a) Explain the Old Testament prophecies about the coming of the Messiah.
b) Relate the concept of the Messiah in the Old and New testaments.
c) Explain the link between the Old and the New Testament
d) Discuss the role of John the Baptist.
Old testament prophesies about the coming of the messiah.
Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to describe prophesies of Nathan,
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah concerning the Messiah
(i) Nathan’s Prophecy (2 Samuel 7:3 – 17) and (Psalms 89: 20 – 38).
David proposed to build God a house. Nathan, the prophet was given a message (an oracle) for David. In this prophecy, God told Nathan to tell King David that:
God would ensure that the Kingdom of David would last forever.
An heir from David’s lineage would rule
David’s heir shall build a house for God’s name. God would establish the throne of his Kingdom forever.
David heir shall be God’s son and God shall be his father.
David house and Kingdom shall be established forever.
David died. But God’s mercy shall not depart from the heir of David. Hence the promise that the
Kingdom of David, shall last forever referred to the messiah who was to come. David is an ancestor of Christ.
(ii) ISAIAH’S PROPHECY – Isaiah 7: 10 – 16; 9: 1- 7; 61:1 –2; and 63.
In these readings, Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would be:
Born of a virgin
A boy, born of a virgin and called ‘Emmanuel’ that is ” God with us”
A Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, The everlasting Father, and the Prince of Peace.
The Spirit of God inside him
Anointed of God
Sent to preach the good news to the poor, to bring liberty to the captives, proclaim the year of favour from God.
Isaiah also prophesied that the Messiah would be the suffering servant (Isaiah 53)
Characteristics Of The Suffering Servant – Isaiah 53
He would bear the sins of human kind
He was oppressed, afflicted, despised, rejected of men
He bore suffering and disgrace submissively
He was mocked and spat on and wounded
He was innocent of sin and yet treated as a criminal.
He was pierced and wounded in the sides
He was crucified with thieves and made intercession for the sinners
He was buried in a rich man’s tomb.
Jeremiah’s prophecy- jeremiah 23: 5 – 6.
God promised to rise up a (branch) who shall:
Choose as King, a righteous descendant of David Prosper
Rule wisely, do what is right, and just in the world
Execute justice on the earth
Ensure that Judah and Israel are safe and live in peace.
Be called ‘the God our righteousness” – “The Lord our salvation’
What does the term a ‘righteous branch ‘means?
iv. Micah’s prophesy, (micah 5: 1 – 5).
Micah prophesied that:
The Messianic King shall come from Bethlehem
He shall lead with authority
He will bring peace
v. The psalmist prophecy (psalm 41:9 and 110:1 –2).
David spoke of
Betrayal by a close friend
Messiah is referred to as ‘ the Lord’
The messiah shall rule/reign in the midst of enemies.
Nathan, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah prophesied of a Messiah to come. The
Jews expected a Messiah who would be a political leader, a victorious ruler and a King. They expected a
Who would lead his people into a time of great national power and prosperity;
In whose reign, there shall be no illness, no sorrow, no injustice,
In whose reign, there shall be no fear
In whose reign, land shall be filled with joy and peace
Who shall rule forever.
1) Describe the prophecy of Jeremiah concerning the Messiah
2) What does the term Messiah mean?
3) Highlight the Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old Testament?
4) Did Jesus Christ fulfill the O.T. prophecies concerning the Messiah? How?
5) Which prophets in the Old Testament prophesied about the expected Messiah?
The concept of the messiah in the new testament
Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to explain the concept of the Messiah
in the New Testament
The concept of messiah is found in Luke 1:26 – 38; 2:1-23; 23:1 – 35; 24:50 – 51. The writer of Luke’s
Gospel makes it clear that Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming of the
Messiah. How did He do this? Well Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies because;
Jesus was born from the lineage of David (Mathew 1)
Angle Gabriel said the child to be born shall rule forever (Luke 1:32) Nathan’s prophecy
Jesus was born of Mary a Virgin, as pre told by Isaiah 7:14
Messiah is called Emmanuel, Isaiah’s prophecy. Mathew 1:18 – 25
Jesus was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecy
The Messiah would be a ‘Son of David’ – Nathan, and Jeremiah prophesies. Jesus was referred to as a ‘Son of David’ (Luke 18:38)
Jesus would bring salvation said by Simeon during dedication of Jesus. Luke 2:29 – 32. This was a fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy.
Jesus referred to himself as the Messiah by reading the scroll. Isaiah 61:1 – 2. and Luke 4: 18 – 19
Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would perform miracles. Jesus performed many miracles.
The prophecy of the suffering servant (Isaiah 53) was fulfilled through the passion, death and
crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
We see Jesus betrayed by one of his disciples – friend, fulfilling the Psalmist prophecy.
Note that the Jews in the New Testament expected a messiah who would deliver them from the rule of the Romans. Jews expected Jesus to be a political leader or king. However, Peter called him ‘the Christ of
God’ (Luke 9:20). Matthew called him King of the Jews in chapter (2 verse 2). Hence, Jesus came as a
Spiritual Leader and King, and not as a political Leader / King.
1. What does the name Emmanuel mean?
2. Explain the concept of the Messiah in the New Testament?
Annunciation Of The Birth Of John The Baptist
The parents of John the Baptist were Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth. Zechariah’s name meant ‘God has
remembered’. Elizabeth’s name meant ‘God has sworn’.
Learning outcome. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to describe the annunciation of the
birth of John the Baptist and Jesus.
John the Baptist
1. The Annunciation – Read – Luke 1:5 – 25.
Zechariah was a priest. He and his wife Elizabeth were old, good and righteous people of God. But they
did not have a child. They were barren. But God gave them a child, John the Baptist. His birth was
announced to his father, Zechariah, when he was in the temple offering incense. An Angel appeared to
Zechariah and told him that his prayers had been heard. His wife Elizabeth will bear a son. The angel said
the child would be called John, which means that ‘God is gracious’. The child
Will be set aside to serve God.
Will be filled with the Holy Spirit
As an adult, John
Will be a Nazarite. He should neither cut his hair nor drink wine.
Shall turn many hearts of people to the Lord their God.
Shall also turn the hearts of the fathers to their children
Zachariah expressed unbelief to these words. Angel Gabriel told him that he shall be dumb until the fulfillment of the God’s words.
The Birth, Circumcision and Naming Of John the Baptist
Elizabeth brought forth a son. This brought great joy to her and Zachariah. The cousins, and neighbours of Elizabeth wanted the Child to be named Zechariah after the father.
But Elizabeth insisted on the name John. When Zechariah was asked to name the child, he wrote down the name John.
On the 8thn day, the child was named John as the angel had said. John was circumcised on the 8th day according to the Jewish traditions.
After naming his Child John, the mouth of Zechariah opened immediately and he started to speak. He sung a song – referred to as Benedictus in Luke 1:67 – 79. As he sung the Benedictus, Zechariah
prophesied that God has:
Raised up a horn of salvation on the house of David
Remembered his covenant with Abraham
Zechariah said this about his Child John:
He shall be the prophet of the most high
The child/John shall prepare the way of the lord by
(i) Calling men to forgiveness
(ii) Showing men the light of salvation
(iii) Guiding people into peace.
The Role Of John The Baptist
The role of John the Baptist is found in Isaiah 40: 3 – 5, Malachi 3:1, 4:5 – 6, and Luke 7: 20 – 35.
Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to describe the role of John the Baptist
in the Gospel.
John the Baptist had an important role to play according to the Angel who announced his coming birth.
His role was to: .
Be a Prophet with qualities of Elijah (see Malachi 3:1, 4:5)
Announce the good news to come just like Elijah did.
Be the link between the Old Testament and New Testament
Prepare the way for the Lord.
Announce the coming of God’s reign that was near.
Preach a baptism of repentance
Baptize with water
Introduce people, and his disciples to the Messiah – Jesus Christ.
Fulfil the Prophecy of Elijah that a messenger was sent before the coming of the Messiah. John the
Baptist was likened to Elijah.
Topic review questions
1. Outline the qualities of John as described by angel Gabriel to Zechariah
2. Why was John referred to as the second Elijah?
3. What lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist?
4.describe the birth of John the Baptist
The Infancy And Early Life Of Jesus – Luke 1:26 – 38
Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should:
a. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus
b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth
c. Describe the birth of Jesus
d. Explain the dedication of JESUS
e. Describe Jesus at the Temple
a. Angel Gabriel announces the birth of Jesus. Angel Gabriel said that Mary would conceive and bear a child. Angel Gabriel called Mary ‘ the highly favoured one’. Mary was an ordinary virgin girl in Galilee engaged to marry Joseph, a descendant of David. The Angel said that Mary will bear
(i) A Son
(ii) called Jesus (which means God serves.
(iii) The child shall be great
(iv) He shall be called the son of the highest.
(v) He shall be given the throne of his father David
(vi) He shall reign forever
(vii) His kingdom will never end.
Read again and explain what angel Gabriel said concerning the child to be born to Mary?
b. Mary visits Elizabeth. Luke 1:39-56
Angel Gabriel had told Mary that her cousin Elizabeth was also going to have a child. Mary went to visit her. The child in Elizabeth’s womb leaped when Mary greeted Elizabeth. The Holy Spirit revealed to Elizabeth that Mary is the mother of her Lord, the Messiah.
Mary answered Elizabeth by singing the hymn “The Protector” in Psalm 121:3, The Love of God. Psalm 103:17, 98:3.
The Magnificent. In this hymn Mary says: Her soul magnifies the Lord.
The Lord has regarded the poor and those of low estate.
God’s mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.
God humbles the proud and mighty, and exalts those of low estate (the lowly)
God has filled the hungry and sent the rich away empty
Through the magnificent, Mary, expresses her joy, gratitude and favour given to her and the world.
c. The birth of Jesus Christ. Luke.2: 1 – 20
The birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem, in Judea, during the reign of Augustus Caesar, a Roman
Emperor. During that time, Rome was conducting a census of the people / citizens for the purpose of collecting taxes. The census was ordered by the emperor to determine payment of taxes.
The method that Rome was using was counting. Joseph, of the house of David went to his hometown, called
Bethlehem; for the census. Jesus was born during this time. He was wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger because there was no accommodation in Bethlehem.
The first people to receive the news that a Savior was born were the shepherds. An angel announcedn the birth of the Savior, Christ the lord, to the shepherds.
The shepherds went to Bethlehem and saw the child Jesus. They spread the word concerning what had been told them about the child.
How was the annunciation of the birth of Jesus extraordinary?
d. The dedication of JESUS – LUKE.2: 22 – 38
Like John the Baptist, Jesus was circumcised, and named on the 8th day. He was named Jesus which
means ‘the savior’ or Yahweh or save’s. Mary and Joseph observed the Jewish customs according to the
Law of Moses. For her purification and dedication of the child Jesus, Mary brought a pair of turtledoves
as an offering. The fist born males were dedicated to God as Holy. Simeon took the child up in his arms
for dedication and said that:
“The child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel. A Sword will pierce Mary’s soul on account of the
child.” Prophet Anna also came to the temple and prophesied that the child shall bring deliverance.
e. Jesus at the Temple Luke 2:42 – 52
The parents of Jesus Mary and Joseph, went to Jerusalem every year for the feast of the Passover. When
Jesus was 12, he accompanied them to Jerusalem. After the feast the parents went home without realizing that their child, Jesus was not with them. But while on the way, they realized he was not amongst them.
They returned to Jerusalem, and looked for him for 3 days. They found him sitting in the temple; listening and asking teachers questions. All those who were in the temple were astonished by his wisdom and intelligence.
It is in the temple that Jesus is revealed, first as a true son of his people and also as light and salvation for all people. On being questioned by Mary and Joseph, Jesus answered thus:
”Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house, about my Father’s business?” This was an echo of Malachi 3:1 “the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple”.
Answer these questions
1 Trace occasions when angels appeared to people in the new testament
2 How did Jesus follow the customs and traditions of the Jewish people?
1. Occasions when angels appeared to people in the New Testament
(a) Angel appeared to Zechariah to announce birth of John the Baptist
(b) Angel appeared to Mary to announce the birth of Jesus Christ
(c) Angels appeared to the shepherds on the night Jesus was born
(d) Angel appeared to Joseph in a dream warning him to flee to Egypt with the child and Mary
2. How Jesus followed the customs and traditions of the Jewish people
(i) He was named on the 8th day
(ii) He was circumcised on the 8th day
(iii) His parents took him to the temple for the annual cerebrations of the. Passover
(iv) He went to the synagogue
(v) In his dedication as a first male, his parents offered the sacrifices expected from them.
Topic Review Questions
1. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus
b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth
c. Describe the birth of Jesus
d. Explain the dedication of JESUS
e. Describe Jesus at the Temple
The Galilean Ministry – Luke 3-8
John the Baptist and Jesus Christ
Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should:
a) Explain the teachings of John the Baptist
b) Describe the baptism and temptation of Jesus and its relevance to Christians today.
c) Give reasons as to why Jesus was rejected at Nazareth
d) Describe the first miracles of Jesus at Capernaum
The preaching of john the baptist (luke3: 1 – 20)
John the Baptist preached about
a. Baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Baptism means to dip in water’. Repentance means
‘change of heart/mind, turning around. Baptism was a symbol of repentance, which means a total
change heart/mind, a confession of sins). Baptism of water was a preparation of the baptism of fire and
Holy Spirit by Jesus.
b. He warned people of God’s coming Judgment. The religious leaders stressed outward observance of
the law rather than inner righteousness. John the Baptist told them to bear fruits worthy of repentance.
He told them to live righteous lives and not as hypocrites (brood of vipers). Religious leaders alsonassumed that since they were descendants of Abraham, God would not punish them.
He warned them that God could raise descendants of Abraham from stones.
c) He announced the coming of the Messiah as Judge. John the Baptist became famous that some
thought he is the promised messiah. He however pointed to a messiah who will not baptize with water but with the Holy Ghost and fire (Jesus Christ).
d) He preached on social justice. He taught, emphasized, advised:
That those who have should share with those who do not have
The need for fairness and honesty for example tax collectors not to collect more than what was required.
That soldiers should not to abuse their power by accusing others falsely, robbing. They were told to be content with their wages.
e). He condemned King Herod’s immoral behaviour. King Herod had married Herodians – his own
brother’s wife. Herod imprisoned John the Baptist and this led to his death (Luke 3 v.22)
What does the term social justice mean?
Find the answer in (d).
Summary of the teachings of John the Baptist
He taught on repentance and forgiveness of sins.
He warned people of God’s coming judgment.
He announced the coming of the messiah who would be judge.
He preached on social justice. Those who have should share with the poor.
He emphasized the need for fairness and honesty.
He warned against abuse of power by those in power and authority.
He condemned taking of bribes, corruption and over taxation.
He condemned sexual immorality (adultery).
Relevance of the teachings of John the Baptist to Christians today
The teachings challenge Christians to be fair, honest, and just in their dealings with other people.
Christians should avoid being hypocritical to one another. Christians need to know that God will judge
them for their wrongdoing. Hence Christian should repent their sins sincerely and seek forgiveness.
Christians should warn non-believers of the coming judgment. They should preach against evils without
fear; and avoid corruption, and sexual immorality. Christians should live together in harmony. Baptism
was important to Christians.
Group Activity. Read Luke and find out how John the Baptist was killed, why and by whom
The baptism of jesus and its relevance today
Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
a. Describe the baptism of Jesus Christ
b. Give reasons why Jesus was baptized
c. State relevance or the importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians
a. The baptism of Jesus Christ (Luke 3: 21 – 22)
When Jesus was around 30 years of age, He went to be baptized by John the Baptist. Jesus was the last
to be baptized. Although he did not need to repent as He did not sin ; He nevertheless was baptized even though He was without sin.
When he was baptized, the heaven opened and the Holy Ghost descended on Him in the form of a dove.
At the same time, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased”.
b. Reasons why Jesus was baptized. He was baptized because:
a. Jesus wanted to show his approval of John’s Ministry of baptism
b. Jesus accepted the work of redemption of human kind to be completed through suffering and death
c. Jesus identified himself with the sinful humankind who needed redemption through baptism
d. Jesus carried all the sins of humankind (baptized last)
e. He wanted to carry sins of people/humankind upon himself in order to bring about reconciliation between people and God.
f. God can confirm to the people that Jesus Christ was the messiah (Ps 2:7)
g. It was an act of preparing those who were ready to receive the Messiah.
h. Baptism was a way of fulfilling the Old Testament prophecy.
c. Relevance or the Importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians
1) Christians practice baptism. They follow example of Jesus baptism. There are many forms of baptism
such as full immersion in water, sprinkling of water on the forehead, partial immersion (head only) and passing under a flag.
2) Christians teach importance of baptism. It qualifies a new convert to become a member of Christian fellowship.
3) Through baptism, Christians receive the power of the Holy Ghost.
4) Through baptism, Christians identify themselves with Jesus Christ and all that he stands for.
5) Baptism unites Christians in the body of Christ.
6) Baptism is a symbol of death and resurrection. In some denominations, the baptized are given new names of other Christians and Jews.
7) Baptism signifies the forgiveness of sins
Through baptism one is considered a child of God.
9) Baptism is a form of preparation for the kingdom of God.
10) Baptism is a sign of Christ’s forgiveness of sins.
Lesson Revision questions
a. What is the relevance of john the Baptist teaching to Christians today?
b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized
c. Describe the baptism of Jesus
d. What is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today
Temptations Of Jesus: Relevance To Christians Today
Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should
a. Narrate temptations of Jesus
b. State relevance of the temptations of Jesus to modern Christians
c. State lessons that Christians can learn from temptations of Jesus
a. The temptations of Jesus (Luke 4:1 – 13). Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit returned from Jordan into the desert. Like Elijah, Moses, He ate and drunk nothing for 40 days and nights. He was hungry after 40 days.
It is at this time of weakness when the devil tempted Him.
First temptation. The devil told Jesus to proof that He was the Son of God by turning the stones to become bread. Jesus however replied that it is written man does not live on bread alone to sustain him but on everything that the Lord says (Deut 8:3).
Satan was telling Jesus to use his Messianic power and Spirit to obtain material security for himself and his followers for selfish, materialistic purposes.
What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus was not seeking to establish a material paradise on earth.
Second temptation. The devil led Jesus up to a high place (High Mountain) and showed Him in an instant all the Kingdoms of the world. He told Him that he would give Him all their authority and splendor, if He bows and worships Satan.
Jesus replied… it is written worship the Lord your God and serve him only. Do not worship other gods (Deut.6: 13-14). Satan wanted Jesus to use Godly power and influence. This was idolatry i.e. worshipping other gods.
What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus did not come to seek a worldwide political military reign as many Jews expected Him to do.
Third Temptation. The Devil led Jesus to Jerusalem and had Him stand on the highest point of the temple. He told Jesus to throw Himself down if He was the Son of God for it is written that the Lord will command angels to guard him (Psalm 91:11 – 12).
Jesus replied and said it is written, do not put the Lord your God to the test. Satan wanted Jesus to presume on God’s good care by jumping from the roof of the temple.
What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus will not force belief in His Messiah ship through a spectacular sign.
Notice that the temptations came after Jesus’ Baptism, where he had solemnly accepted the opening of his public ministry and God confirmed it. Therefore the temptations were a testing of his loyalty to God’s chosen way of life.
b. Relevance of Jesus temptations to Christians
Jesus, though without sin was tempted. His followers must expect to be tested in their faith. Christians
learn that it is not sinful to be tempted. Since Jesus was tempted, he understands Christian’s difficulties
when they are tempted. Jesus is always ready to help Christians to cope with temptations.
Why do you think Christians are tempted?
Through temptations and trials, Christian’s faith in God is strengthened. Christians learn to refer to the
Bible for guidance when tempted. Jesus said that it is written… in reference to scripture. Christians
should seek the Holy Spirit to give them strength to fight any form of trials and temptations.
Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit went to the wilderness and was tempted by the devil……………” In temptation, God does provide a way out. Thus followers of Jesus Christ (Christians) should not be seekers of spectacular signs.