System Analysis 

System Analysis 

This is the process of solving computer problems and use of computer technologies to meet the needs of an organization.

This is the first stage of the system analysis. Here the analysist makes a survey by gathering information needed for the system and the allocation of the requirements to the software.

The Benefits of System Analysis

Every organisation has several businesses and systems that function individually and cohesively to achieve a set of targets.

System analysis is the detailed evaluation of a particular system to identify areas for improvements and make any enhancements if necessary. 

This includes; gathering the company requirements and researching the path to be taken to effect these requirements. The ultimate target is to have a fully operational system in place that provides efficiency and reliability to the organization.

A question that is often asked regarding system Analysis is “What are the benefits of system analysis?”

  • Costs, Efficiency & Flexibility. When a system analysis is properly performed, it makes certain that the correct path is taken with regards to applications and it helps to minimize errors which reduce future IT requirements for fixing will also save money and ensure that the right path is taken in getting an application.
  • Better Management; Better controls. System analysis allows for better management through changing the software to suit any business changes, this means that the final product will be totally controllable.
  • Risks. Through the process potential threats are identified. A risk assessment is carried out to evaluate all the negative impacts on the processes.
  • Quality. The quality of the systems is ensured through the checking of the system constantly through system analysis.

What is System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

Definition: SDLC is stand for System Development Life Cycle. The System Development Life Cycle is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project.

System development life cycle is a model used to describe the level of information system development projects from beginning until it is completed.

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) includes 5 steps which are:- a) Planning

  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance.

 This 5 phase is a systematic strategy to large-scale development projects and to develop the information system.

System Development Life Cycle’s Phase

There have 5 phases in system development life cycle. 


planning is the first phase we need to do instead of other phase which is analysis, design, implementation and maintenance because of planning is the phase to create a project plan and without the project plan how the company proceed to the next phase. 

Besides that, during the planning phase, the objective of the project is determined and the requirements to produce the product are considered. An estimate of resources, such as employees and costs, is prepared, along with a concept for the new product. All of the information is analysed to see if there is an alternative solution to creating a new product. If there is no other viable alternative, the information is assembled into a project plan and presented to management for approval.

Analysis. We need to analyse by breaking down all parts which is draw a diagram and also we need to talk with the stakeholders and the technical providers to gather the entire requirement. 

Besides that, in the analysis stage the project team need to determine the end-user requirements. Often this is done with the assistance of client focus groups, which provide an explanation of their needs and what their expectations are for the finished product and how it will perform. The project team documents all of the user requirements and gets a sign-off from the client and management to move forward with system design.

Design this is the third phase of system development life cycle used to decide if the system will be created in house or out sourced. This design phase come before implementation phase because in this phase we need to identify how the system will operate and how it will be used by end users. This design phase also will re-examine the feasibility study done in the analysis phase.

Besides that, design phase is the “architectural” phase of system design. The flow of data processing is developed into charts, and the project team determines the most logical design and structure for data flow and storage.

Implementation phase come as a fourth phases in system development life cycle. Implementation phase is the phase where the system is built or purchased and tested. In this phase the training is implemented for end users. Besides that, this implemented is use by end users is evaluated. 

Maintenance. In this phase the maintenance happens once the system is operational. It includes implementation of changes that software might experience over a period of time, or implementation of new requirements after the software is deployed at the customer location. The maintenance phase also includes handling the outstanding errors that may exist in the software even after the implementation phase. This phase also monitors system performance, repairs viruses and requested changes are made.

Career Opportunities In Information And Communication Technology

Information and communications technology (ICT) has created new job tittles such as;

  • Computer operators.
  • Computer technicians.
  • System analysts
  • Computer programmers
  • Software engineers
  • Information system manager
  • Database administrator
  • Computer trainer
  • Website administrator
  • Computer graphics designer
  • Network administrators

This section explains some responsibilities of these professionals who are generally called information technology workers.

a) Computer technician. Given that all computers regular maintenance, upgrading as well emergency repairs, demand for computer technicians continue to grow as more and more computerize their work place and homes.

  Responsibilities of a computer technician

  • Troubleshooting computer hardware and software related problems.
  • Ensuring that all computer related accessories such as printers, modems, storage media e.t.c working properly.
  • Assembling and upgrading computers and their components.
  • In developed countries, technicians help hardware engineers in designing and creating some computer components such as motherboards, storage devices e.t.c.

b) System analyst. The is a person who is responsible for analyzing a company’s needs or problems then designs and develops a computer based information system.  A good information systems analyst is one who has the following attributes.

  • Good problem solving skills, creativity i.e must have experience in solving problems. o Good communication skills; the analyst must be able to communicate clearly and precisely both in writing and in speech.
  • He/she must be able to talk to different groups of people e.g managers, operators, attendant and general public.
  • Must have business knowledge; the analyst must be well trained in relevant areas of computer science such as hardware, software and programming knowledge.


  • Reviewing the current manual or redundant information system and making recommendations on how to replace it with a more efficient one.
  • Working with programmers to construct and test the system.
  • Coordinating training for users of the new system.
  • Computer programmer.  Large organizations like insurance companies, banks, manufacturing firms and government agencies hire programmers to work together with system analyst in order to;
  • Write in-house applications programs or system programs
  • Customize commercial application package to suite the organization needs.
    • Test, debug, install and maintain programs developed or customized for the organization.
  • Software engineer. A software engineer is one who is skilled in software development and technical operation of computer hardware.


  • Developing system and application software.
  • Developing user and technical documentations for the new software.
  • Maintaining and updating the software to meet day to day requirements while overcoming challenges.
  • Computer engineer.   Computer and electronic engineers are coming up with more efficient and communication technology almost daily.  Since computers are electronic devices, hardware designers must be good in electronic engineering in order to be able to;
  • Design and develop computer components such as storage devices, motherboards and other electronic components.
  • Re-engineer computer components to enhance its functionality and efficiency.
    • Design and develop engineering an manufacturing computer controlled devices such as robots.
  • Information system manager.  The information system manger controls, plans, staffs, schedules and monitors all activities of the ICT department in the organization.  Using computerized management information systems (MIS), the manger can test the impact that an alternative course of action might have on the business.

Other responsibilities

  • Making sure that all tasks in the IT department are done correctly and on time in order to support business planning, control and decision making processes.
  • Preparing budgets for the department.
  • Keeping the department inventory records up-to-date.
  • Managing the human resource with in the department.
  • Computer trainer.  Due to the dynamic nature of computers and information technology, there is a high demand for qualified ICT trainers.  Some of the responsibilities of an ICT trainer are;
  • Training people on how to use a computer and various application programs.
  • Developing training reference materials.
  • Guide learners on how to acquire knowledge through carrying out research.
  • Advising learners on the best career opportunities in the broad field f ICT.
    • Preparing learners for ICT examinations.
  • Database administrator.  The major purpose of computerising organizations or institutions is to store data in an organised way for easy access, retrieval and update. The organization requires a person who should be responsible for updating records in an information system database.  For this reason, a database administrator is responsible for;
  • Designing and developing database application for the organization.
    • Setting up security measures needed to control access to data and information.
    • Keeping the database up-to-date by adding new records, modifying or deleting unnecessary records.
  1. Website administrator/ Web master.  Internet is one of the areas of information and communication technology that has drawn the interests of most people.  These people are able to exchange messages, search for information and business through the internet.

Business organizations, educational institutions and individuals put information on the internet by developing websites.  Most organizations hire the services of a web developer who is given the role of a company’s web administrator also referred to as a web master.


  • Developing and testing websites.
  • Maintaining, updating and modifying information on the websites to meet new demands by the users.
  • Monitoring the access and use of internet connection by enforcing security measures
  • Downloading information needed by an organization or institution from internet websites.

Possible Future Trends of the Internet

  • The internet will continue to expand and change in several ways; faster connections, more users, new multimedia and virtual reality services.
  • More interactive services such as multimedia newspapers, livestock market tickers, automatic notification of when pre-destinated events take place anywhere on the internet.
  • Internet as universal as a radio and television today.
  • Learning will become any time anywhere.
  • Impact of information technology to the society, morally unemployment vision, laxity and entertainment.

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