The course of the rebellion. 

  • The  war started in 1906 in Grey town
  • Bambatha chief of the zondi people led ti
  • It started when bambatha was told to appear personally at Grey town to pay pole tax together with the people
  • He failed to comply to majestic order with his men
  • He was told the second time to appear before court but his headman Nhlorihlo refused him
  • Since then became a hunted man
  • During his hunting process reached Usutu the palace of king Dinizulu and got aroung 303 guns and ammunitions
  • During these  ambushes of bambatha many policemen were killed and others were wounded but none of bambatha was killed
  • He used them in ambushes and managed to kill over 36 people who were sent to collect him
  • This gave confidence confidence to zulu people
  • It made many to join the war in order to fulfil  the property that can not be killed by the bullet of whites man
  • Bambatha proceeded with his move up to zulu while being hunted by the natal police
  • On 10th of june 1906 was trapped with his followers at mengo George
  • They were not given chance to surrender and no prisoner of war was held
  • Over 600 bambatha people were put to death
  • However other zulu people proceeded with the struggle
  • Those who continued with the struggle were over 40,000 pf which 2000 were killed
  • Bambatha was also put to death that ended the war
  • It marked the major event against colonial rule before the act of union

Effects of the war.

  • It led to the appointing of 4 white people to represent the interest of Africans in LEGCO
  • Many Africans became refugees in unfavorable places, which brought to human suffering
  • British took over full control of zulu land and colonise it
  • Properties were destroyed and others looted like cattle in order to weaken the zulu
  • It led to the increased spread of independent churches all over south Africa
  • It led to the signing of 1910 act of union for proper discrimination of Africans
  • Since the British were forced to make some changes in their administration e.g. through the passing of the 1908 bill
  • It made Africans to get deeply involved in the politics of south Africa 
  • Many Africans became refugees
  • African cattle were lost
  • It gave rise to the growth of African nationalism eg led to the formation of African national congress 
  • African lost trust in their traditional leaders
  • Traditional leaders lost the authority
  • Dinizulu and other political leaders were arrested as suspects for Bambatha supporter 
  • The  british became stricter over the political freedom of the Africans
  • The African people were put into reserve camps
  • The Africans people lost their independence 
  • The land of the African people was taken
  • Europeans discrimination of the Africans increased/ I ntensified
  • Famines lost the war therefore they didn’t achieve their aim or goal
  • There was depopulation because of the killing of many people
  • Bambatha was put to death also at Memo Gorge
Why the War Unsuccessful To the Africans
  • The Africans were not united e.g. only one Zondi of zulu fought
  • Africans had poor methods of fighting 
  • Africans had inferior and outdated weapons
  • Africans did not have battle leaders eg Bambatha was not a professional soldier
  • Africans were poor therefore they couldn’t facilitate the war
  • Many Africans had been hit with drought and diseases therefore they were unfit for the war
  • The Africans didn’t plan the rebellion very well, therefore they didn’t partipate in the war fully
  • The British were ready and determined to colonize south Africa therefore they were supposed to defeat the Africans
  • Dinizulu’s failure to support the Bambatha brought the war failure  
  • Over dependency on traditional powers brought the war failure 

Mosheshe and the building of a basutu nation the rise of basutu nation.

  • He gave gifts to his strong and powerful neighbors like Shaka who could fight him
  • He obtained advise from evangelical mission 
  • He acquired guns and horses to strengthen his military power
  • He avoided attacks from British e.g. one day wrote a letter and sent it to the British governor apologizing for defeat the British
  • He maintained pitso council where discussions were held openly about the state
  • He sent away Boer trekkers
  • He signed treaties with british eg in 1848 and in 1860
  • He encouraged the basuto culture and made all the cattle to belong to him
  • He promoted marriage alliance for unit purpose
  • He grew up with special qualities hence qualifying him to be a candidate for future leadership
  • The name Mosheshe meant a shaver
  • He was a man who used to shave captured cows hence his name
  • He grew up under the guidance of Motloni
  • He used the guidance patience and peace to unite the various tribes within the nation
  • He gave land and cattle to his people
  • He obtained ideas from evangelical missions
  • He united the people who had been dispersed by the Mfecane period
  • He restored freedom peace and order in the kingdom
  • He used diplomacy in dealing with his neighbors 
  • He used hilltops for security interests 
  • He was born around 1786 to Makachane
  • Mokachane was a minor chief of Kwena
  • Mosheshe ruled basutu nation between 1815-1870
  • He became popular during the period of Mfecane
  • He cooperate all refugees and gave them land and cattle 

Explain the factors for the growth and expansion of Basutu nation between 185-1870.

  • Presence of able leaders like mosheshe
  • Strong and good personalities who were foresighted and intelligent
  • Existence of flat topped hills which were for security purposes
  • Well protected fortreses eg Butha mountains and Thaba Bosiu
  • Strong and good personalities who were foresighted and intelligent
  • Existence of flat –topped hills which were for security purposes
  • Well protected fortresses eg Burtha mountains and Thaba bosiu 
  • Strong defensive programe of nation building and after mfecane
  • Assimiliation of various fleeing groups in sotho culture 
  • Peace, patience and understanding of mosheshe
  • Good relationship with the neighbors
  • Presence of mounted horse soldiers who strengthened the military movement of the state the opponents
Military advise provided by Europeans
  • The state was small and easy to control from internal and external aggression
  • Marriage alliances were encouraged to build strong nationalism and unite
  • Local affairs were left in the hands of provincial leaders that brought effieciency
  • Using internal treats people were united they realized that they had a common problems and interests
  • Mosheshe avoided conflicts with the whites that promoted the relation between them and basuto
  • There was plenty of food which protected people from famine and external raids for food
  • Mosheshe’s policy of giving gifts to neighbors like cattle which kept them in good relationship like the zulu

Achievements of mosheshe.

• He created unity amongst the basuto

  • He encouraged marriage from each community 
  • He allowed refugees to come back
  • He promoted trade between basuto and Europeans
  • He trained a very strong army equipped with guns and horses
  • He created one language within the basuto
  • He prevented the Boers and the british from taking away the basutu nation
  • He maintained peace and stability within the nation
  • He created unit amongst the basuto despite the fact that they were many tribes within the area
  • He gave land and cattle to his people
  • He allowed missionaries to settle in his area and civilize his people • He avoided wars with others tribes 
  • Mosheshe was noted to be one of the greatest leaders in the history of south Africa
  • He constructedp a new and safe capital and Thaba-Busiu
  • By the time he died he had protected the basuto community from white imperialism
  • He protected the independence of the Basuto
  • He led the state through a trouble some period Mfecane
  • He led a foundation for the present day Lesotho nation
  • He transferred his capital to Thaba busiu
  • He encouraged civilization in his nation by the missionaries 

Political, social and economic organisation of

Basuto [ btn 1810-1890]

  • The king headed the state
  • The post of kingship was hereditary
  • Mosheshe provided the strongest personality of leadership within the state
  • It was made up of small independent chiefdoms
  • He placed each small ethnic group (Chiefdoms) under the contract of his family member
  • The bigger unit was given their own leaders who were too royal to the king
  • He got tributes from conquered states
  • He used some of his family members as spies to the conquered chiefs
  • The basuto had not centralized standing army
  • The general assembly called Pitso was to discuss the major issues within the state
  • Pitso discussed the powers of chiefs to avoid dictatorship
  • Pitso was made out of adult male
  • The king sent gifts to the neighboring powerful states
  • The king was the religious , judiciary and civil prefects
  • They grew crops for food staffs and reared animals
  • The land belonged to the whole community and the chief was custodian of it
  • Basutu state had clans organized under clan leaders
  • Marriage alliance was encouraged to strengthen until in the kingdom
  • The Sotho had initiation ceremonies etc 

Qn Why Mosheshe requested for British protection in 183-1860.

  • Increased white famers in basuto land made him to look for experienced advisors who were the BritishThe increased number of refugee groups had complicated the basuto
  • The unwillingness of the white farmers to be part of the basuto nation
  • The white farmers were not satisfied with the land which mosheshe had given them therefore they were to interfere his leadership
  • Wardens attempts to break mosheshe’s power of basuto land
  • The defeat of wardern by mosheshe made the later to request protection to avoid retaliation 
  • The fine of 10,000 cattle imposed from mosheshe by governor George Cathcart for having defeated wardern
  • The capture of 4,000 cattle from basuto by cartcart was a sign of defeat to mosheshe therefor had to request protection
  • The quarrel between the organge free state and mosheshe forced the basuto to seek for british protection
  • He wanted to unite the different groups of basuto land into one nation
  • He wanted to protect his land
  • He wanted to prevent more of the boers from coming into basuto territory
  • Mosheshe wanted to protect his people from further humiliation and starvation
  • He wanted to protect the independence of basuto 

Relationship between Mosheshe and the Europeans 

Qn. How the European cooperated with Mosheshe?

  • The white missionaries were the first people to deal with mosheshe
  • Their relationship was both bad and good
  • He gave the French missionaries land where to set mission station
  • They became the advisers of him over European matters
  • Later the Boers arrived in the state who were in need of land and gave them that land for temporary
  • They settled there, used it for grazing and considered it theirs • They also refused to recognize his presence as the authority Because of that act he had to sign a treaty in 1843 that came to be known as Napier treaty
  • It  gave a warning to the Boers that they shouldn’t steal basuto’s land
  • The Boer remained deaf and continued to threatened basuto
  • In 1846 mosheshe requested the British to intervene and stop the Boers threats
  • A  British representative was appointed and based in Bloemfountein to solve the problem
  • He found it difficult to chase away the Boers because they had set up farms 
  • In the same year the British gave more land to Boers from the Basuto but the problem persisted
  • In 1884 British governor Sir Harley Smith decided to annex orange river territory in order to stop the basuto Boer conflict or threats
  • Later major Wardern (the british officer in charge of basuto Boer conflict) drew a line to separeta the Boers from the basuto
  • During that scandal/ process that basuto ended up losing 32km of land to the boers and british
  • Many British were encouraged to come and settle in that land but they refused because they couldn’t leave their farms that they had set aside
  • The Boers were now encouraged to fight an attack from the basuto where the later own
  • The British now became annoyed and sent George Carth cart to destroy the basuto once and for all
  • He first paid 3500 and asked more time to pay for the other
  • Carth cart refused to prolong the deadline and decides to attack the basuto forcefully but he was defeated
  • However the basuto managed to loose some cattle to carth cart
  • Mosheshe now wrote a letter to carthcart begging not to be attacked again and that didn’t intend win them
  • Still mosheshe requested for British protection and was granted to him by carth cart in 1868
  • In 1870 mosheshe died a happy man for having protected his people from Boer imperialism 

The war of guns 1880-1881 / the basuto war of guns causes of the war.

  • This was a war between the British at the cape and the basuto
  • It was also called the Anglo –Basuto war
  • It was a war where the Africans fought the whites
  • Chief Moroosi led the Africans
  • It was caused by long held suspicious between the Africans and the whites
  • The British under mining of Africans leaders eg imprisoning them annoyed the basuto
  • The need bythe british to colonise the basuto land created war
  • Heavy taxes imposed from Africans annoyed them hence a war
  • The taxes had poor methods of collection employed by British
  • The outbreak of famine amongst the basuto caused the war
  • Africans wanted toprotect their independence
  • Forced labour the basuto were forced to work in british farms while they were under paid
  • Presence of strong leaders like chief Letsie and his son who had ambiscious characters like Mosheshe 
  • The death of mosheshe who was a diplomatic man
  • The earlier success of the basuto against the British gave them courage to fight them
  • The role played by the chief moroosi and lerothodi who inspired many people to join the war
  • The need to protect the basuto land, which was being targeted by the whites
  • The Africans also hated the newly appointed white magistrate amongst the Puthi
  • The magistrate Mr.hope never recognized the basuto culture e.g. paying bride price
  • The 1878 peace preservation treaty which was signed by the British cased the war
  • The need to disarm the basutu prepared ground for the war
  • The killing of Moroosi wehen he was trying to resist the imprisonment of his son and diarment
  • The Basuto refusal to hand in guns tot the British sparked off/ lint on the war fever

Course of the Basuto War of Guns

The war was fought in only seven months

It started in 1880 when the paramount chief Letsie made formal protest

Nevertheless, before that chief Moroosi in the early 1880 had mobilized Africans to resist the British

  • Chief Moroosi was a leader of Puthi tribe in Lesotho
  • The real fighting broke out in September in 1880 led by Letsei ‘s son his uncle Masupha , Lerothid
  • The leaders looked for flat topped mountains eg maseru, morijja , thaba busiu etc which they used easily to defend themselves
  • Letsie’s son made people to join the war because his characters were like those of Mosheshe
  • The whites that invaded the basuto on the hills were seriously defeated
  • In January 1881 the cape forces tried to attack Thaba Busiu but they were defeated
  • The war finally ended in April 1881 when the cape government asked for peace
  • The war proved to be very expensive in terms of money for the British and the treaty was signed in April that finally ended the war
  • It gave a guarantee that the bausto were to remain with their guns
  • Therefore the Africans had won the war by 1881.

Reasons why the basutu war of guns  was Successful (1881)

  • The origin of basuto as a defensive nation with out question had to defeat the British
  • The basuto were determined to preserve their independence
  • The British planned for basuto attack eg in 1878 preservation treaty which met the bsuto also get prepared for the war
  • The basuto were very many in number compared to the British troops, therefore they out weighed them
  • The British were not used to climbing hilly areas where the basuto hid themselves that is why they were defeated
  • Many of the British were from the cape therefore they were not used to basuto climate
  • The basuto fought on their motherland therefore they had their home advantage
  • They were tactical in war ie they avoided direct low land and they hid themselves in mountainous areas The basuto were annex with guns and horses
  • Good leaders of Letsie’s son , Lerothoid etc