THE PEOPLE OF EAST AFRICA

THE PEOPLE OF EAST AFRICA

History is the study of past events.

Sources of hi story

 ORAL TRADITION (LEGENDS)

Getting information from stories told by the old generation.

LINGUISTIC

  • Study of people’s languages spoken in particular regions.

Anthropology

  • Study of people’s culture in terms of dressing, ceremonies, tools etc.
  • The  people who carry  out the study are known  as athropologists.

WRITTEN RECORDS

Getting information from written records ie

Newspapers, magazines, letters etc.

ARCHAEOLOGY;

  • The scientific study of fossils which are dug from under ground.
  • The exercise of removing early remains from underground is known as excavation.
  • The term given to mean earlyman remains is Fossils.
  • The people who excavate are reffered to as archaelogists.
  • The places where excavation was carried out are called archeological sites.

ARCHEOGICALISTS AND THEIR FINDINGS IN EAST AFRICA.

DR. LOVIS LEAKEY AND HIS WIFE

  • This is the important and famous archaeologist in the history of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania in 1959 who was termed asZinjanthropus.
  • Zenj was a word to mean black and anthropus means man.
  • This man fed on roots, berries, insects, and honey.
  • Because of the oldest human skull that was found in Africa, it was termed as the cradle land of man.

DR.PASNANSKY;

  • He found the remains of the chwezi at Bigobbya mugenyi.

JS KIRKMAN AND CHITIK

  • These ones excavated a number of remains at the coast of East Africa including those of the Portuguese.

NOTE;

  • All these fossils in east Africa are kept in museums in Uganda, Kisumu and Fort Jesus in Kenya, Darsalam and Arusha in Tanzania.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN EAST ARICA;

UGANDAKENYATANZANIA
BigobyamugenyiOlorgesaille near L.Magadi.Olduvai   Gorge
NsongeziKobi foora near L.Turkana.Engaruka  
Sango BayFort Ternan near KisumuIsimilia
ParaaKariandusi near L.Nakuru.Kalambo
Nyero Peninj
Rusinga  
Ntusi  
Magosi  

NOTE;

  • Nyero in Ugandan is well known for rock painting and Bbigobyamugenyi is known for the chwezi.

IMPORTANCE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES.

  • They promotestudy and research.
  • They provide information about the activities done long ago.
  • They promote the tourism industry.
  • They help to determine the process through which man developed.

MAP SHOWING ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN EAST AFRICA.

MAP SHOWING ARCHIEOLOGICAL SITES IN EAST AFRICA

Questions;

  1. Why is East Africa referred to as the cradleland of man?
  2. Why is it important to study about the sites where early man lived?
  3. Name the archaeologicalist who discovered the remains of the chwezi people in Bigobyamugeyi.
  4. Give one way in which archaeological sites contribute to the development in terms of economy of a country.

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY MAN;

  • The early man lived morethan a period of twenty million years ago.Since that  time he has gone through a  number of changes and these changes are three referred to as stone age periods.

CATEGORIES OF STONE AGE PERIOD;

OLD STONE AGE PERIOD;

  • This period is also referred to as the early stone age period.
  • Man lived a simple life by gathering fruits, digging up roots and hunting animals for food.
  • He used simple tools likehand axe and chopper; the hand axe was used for skinning animals, digging up roots and shaping other tools madeout of wood.
  • Other important tools used were arrows heads, knives, pick, cleaver and bolas.
  • Bolas helped totrap fast running animals.

DRAWING OF TOOLS USED BY MAN IN THE EARLY STONE AGE PERIOD;

          
Hand axeCleaverA pick axebolas

MIDDLE STONE AGE PERIOD;

  • During this period man made a variety of tools out of wood, bones, and horns ofanimals.
  • The tools made included knives, spear heads, chisels and scrappers.
  • Man started hunting animals using traps during this period.
  • Fire became the most important discovery during this period.

IMPORTANCE OF FIRE TO EARLY MAN;

  • To roast meat
  • For warmth
  • For protection
  • For light in caves
  • Scaring away dangerous wild animals
  • For boiling poison put on arrow heads.
  • Man started to tame animals like the dog.

TOOLS USED IN THE MIDDLE STONE AGE

         
Spear (tool) Bow and arrow(Weapons )Stone spear (weapon)

USES OF THE DOG TO EARLYMAN,

  • Helped earlyman to carry out hunting.
  • It gave security to earlyman.
  • Helped man to tame other animals.
  • At the end of themiddle Stone Age period, man discovered farming which marked the begging of the new Stone Age period.

THE NEW STONE AGE PERIOD (LATE STONE AGE.)

  • Under this period man became more creative, he began to live in simple huts and tree shelters, started growing crops and keeping animals which made him to lead a settled life.
  • Man started using more refined toolswith sharp points and regular shapes e.g. spears, needles and fish hooks.
  • At the end of this period, man discovered iron smelting which made him to start using iron tools and this marked thebegging of the Iron Age.

IRON AGE;

  • It brought a number of changes on the life of man.
  • Stronger weapons were made for protection.
  • Stronger tools were made for farmingand hunting.
  • Ornaments were made which were exchanged with other communities to get items.

The idea of iron smelting was started by the Cushites at Meroe (Ethiopia)

In Uganda, iron smelting was introduced by the Bachwezi

The headquarters of the Bachwezi were at Bigobyamugenyi currently in Sembabule district.

QUESTIONS;

  1. What is meant by the term stone age period?
  2. Identify the most important discovery made during;
  3. Middle Stone Age.
  4. Old Stone Age.
  5. Identify any one change which was introduced by each of the following.
  6. Farming
  7. Iron smelting
  8. State any two ways in which a dog was useful to earlyman.
  9. What was the use of each of the following tools to earlyman?
  10. Bolars.
  11. Chopper
  12. Hand axe.

6.         How did farming enable man live a settled life?

7.         How did iron improve early man’s life?

ple 2010 exam