The Relationship between the Dutch and Africans  

The Relationship between the Dutch and Africans 

Qn. Describe the relationship between the Dutch and the Africans at the cape

  • The African groups in southern African by the time of Dutch presence at the cape were the san Khoi-khoi and the Bantu
  • The Dutch in southern African had a competitive life with Africans groups
  • The Dutch rivaled with the Africans for land ownership 
  • The Dutch increased population on the Africans’ land
  • The Dutch displaced the Africans like Khoi-khoi northwards and eastwards
  • The san were made to have a desperate and heroic life because were pushed to isolated and upland areas
  • The san raided the Dutch for survival because their game areas were taken
  • The san were not respected by the Boers and ever were hunted like animals
  • The captured san were enslaved in Boers farms
  • Survivors from the Boers hunt ran to desert margins and mountains where they were shoot
  • The khoi-khoi lost their grazing land to the Boers
  • The Boers changed the Africans policy of feudal ownership of land to private
  • The Boers onforce exchanged Khoikhoi cattle into beads , tobacco, and alcohol
  • Many Africans were impoverished and became independent to the dutch
  • The ducth destroyed the khoikhoi harder’ groups into smaller groups of people
  • The khoikhoi who ran as the ducth were arriving copied their way of dressing
  • They also copied their religion
  • The khoikhoi also acquired ducth pastoral life and language
  • The ducth in areas like Griqual,Namibia etc made many African refugees
  • The bantu frequently raided the ducth for the cattle because the dsucth used to live in isolated small villages 

Causes of 1795 revolt at graaf reinet and swellendam.

  • This was a demonstration in the districts of Swellendam and Graafreinet
  • The Boer farmers were opposing the company activities at the cape
  • The declaring of their independence as republics from the company
  • The policy of regarding Africans as human being was unfair to the Dutch
  • Trade restrictions on the Dutch farmers
  • Lack of protection to Dutch farmers and yet they thought that it was their right
  • The dislike of Dutch farmers to be under authority outside puritanical community.

THE KAFFIR WARS

Causes of the Kaffir Wars

Explain the causes of Kaffir wars.

  • There were several conflicts between the Bantu Xhosa and the Boers of the dutch
  • They were also called wars of dispossession
  • These series of war took place between 1770-1857
  • These conflicts were because of Boer’s extension of their colony to the interior (Cape colony)
  • Many people also called them eastern frontiers/ eastern question of south Africa/ Xhosa wars
  • They were about 9 wars during that period
  • The Xhosa leaders were many which include Tyali, Noklami, Nanqusi etc 
  • They were fought between Keiskamma and Fish River
  • The increase in population in both Xhosa people and the Boer caused the wars
  • The expansion of the Xhosa south , north and eastern wards threatened Boer settlement hence Kaffir wars
  • The constant raid of cattle by both the Xhosa and the Boers caused the war
  • The African need to protect their land from being taken by the white people
  • The Dutch policy of taking Xhosa wives annoyed them hence the war
  • The outbreak of drought and occurrence of locusts which made them to run short of food, water and pastures
  • The Boers’ riches coupled with living in isolated places impress the Africans to share the same
  • Abuse of African cultures and traditions by the Boers caused the Kaffir wars
  • Enslavement of the Africans by the Boers caused wars
  • Absence of proper boundaries between the xhosa and boers  caused the wars
  • Disunity among African chief cause a series of wars
  • The raise of African prophet and divine e.g. the Rarabe caused the wars
  • The British policy of colonialism caused the last kaffir wars
  • Owning of large herds of cattle and practice of agriculture, which eroded large places of land from Africans caused Kaffir wars 

The Course of Kaffir Wars

Qn. Explain the organization of Kaffir wars

  • The Xhosa wars took place in possessions
  • The first Kaffir wars took place in 1775-1781 and was led by the Xhosa chief called Halambe
  • The 2nd war took place in n1789-1803
  • It was also between the Xhosa and the Boers
  • It was the 6th war to dispossession in south Africa 
  • It occurred on the eastern border on the cape i.e. between Koiskamma and Fish River
  • The major wars of disposition were mainly due to cattle rustlers to the Xhosa
  • Because of that there was raiding and counter raiding from the
  • Boers and the Xhosa inspired by chiefs like Macono, Tyali etc.
  • The Xhosa warriors of about 20,000 attached the Boers
  • Such an attack to the Boers cost so many lives of them
  • Properties too were also destroyed eg cattle of about 30 pounds were lost from the boers
  • However at the end the Xhosa were military defeated and droved out of the territory
  • The achievement of driving away the Xhosa was a combination of the Boers and British under Durban
  • Having lost much property the  Boers began to think of compensation from the British
  • Surprisingly after sending away the Xhosa governor-Durban set up a new district in the area called province of Queen Adelaide [this was named after the visit of Australian queen in south Africa
  • This was named after the Boers thought they are going to receive a peace of  mind and thought that this territory is theirs
  • Unfortunately under the influence of John Ohilip, the British colonial secretary lord Gienelg nullified that conquest 
  • This was due to the excessive imperialism practiced by the British governor at the expense of the Africans and he returned it to the Africans
  • That annoyed the Boers and  had no nay other chance but trekking into interior of south Africa 

Steps taken by the British to solve the kaffir Wars

How did the British try to end the Boer-Bantu conflict in 17701856?

  • The British administration was interested in keeping peace at the eastern volunteer and therefore many attempts were made to solve the problem
  • In as much as the attempts were made they lacked lasting  solution to the problems
  • Several strategies were put in place between 1812 &1834 when the great trek took place
  • In 1812 the British did this by building Garrisons and fonts between the Boers and the Bantu tribes
  • The British also made an agreement with chief Gaika by giving more land but Ndhalambi’s group was not favored
  • This made the British to create a no man’s land between River Kie & Keiskamma
  • However that attempts also failed because the Boers and the Bantu wanted also to use that fertile land 
  • This made the British to allow British settlers to occupy the conflicting areas between the Boers and the Africans
  • 1835 a new governor of British Sir Benjamin Durban decided to expand the cape 100 miles north
  • He assured the Boers that there going to be compensated for their lost property ie pounds 300,000 
  • They also promised to help the Bantu so as long as they were to respect British laws
  • Durban was forced to establish the province of Queen Adelaide which John Philip disagreed with
  • This marked the beginning of great treaty
  • Therefore the Boers were not compensated at the end also the province wasn’t declared and conflict continued hence the Boers exit  

Why were the Xhosa defeated? (Reasons for African failure)

Why the Africans did lost the 1770-1850 wars?

  • There were military weak and not well trained
  • Had inferior weapon like bow and arrows yet the Boers had strong guns
  • The Africans lack clear and strong leaders who could effectively mobilize them
  • Disunity amongst the Africans eg Ndhalanbi and Gaika
  • Africans lack financial support because of the peasantry way of life
  • Africans had no external support yet the Boers received it from the British
  • Drought , famine and locusts which had  it Africans made them, depend against the Boers
  • Africans had spent some years fighting the wars hence they felt exhausted and withdrew
  • The determination of the Boers that what come may they must defeat the Xhosa
  • The brutality of the Boers against African resistance made them to win the war
  • The Africans believed in devube powers, which made them to be defeated

BRITISH OCCUPATION AT THE CAPE

Causes of the British Occupation at the Cape

Why the British occupied the cape colony?

  • British occupied South Africa two times
  • She first occupied South Africa in 1795 and its rule was short lived
  • Because in 1802 it left it for the Dutch after peace treaty of Amiens By the time the British left South Africa in 1802 they left much of nothing done
  • South Africa then received a new government called Batavian republic 
  • The Batavian republic was now  under the leadership of JanWilliam Janssen
  • They wanted to carry out trade at the far east
  • Fear of Napoleonic wars which were to spread up to the south  Africa & interfere British interest
  • The request made by William V to the British to occupy the cape
  • The French invasion of Holland in 1793 threatened the Dutch and the British made her to occupy the cape
  • Presence of trade items like spices
  • The strategic location of the cape which was between Europe and India
  • The cape was good for defense and protection for the British ships
  • The British wanted to protect the many white farmers who had occupied the cape
  • The British wanted to gain prestige
  • Britain was looking for market for her industrial commodities
  • Britain wanted areas where she could put the excess population of her hence occupying the cape
  • The defeat of France in 1814 made the cape to be rewardered to the British
  • Presence of good natural harbors where the British ship merchants could archer
  • Fertile soils which could enable the growing of crops for British sustenance 

THE BOTAVIAN RULE AT THE CAPE (1803-1895)

Qn. How Jan William Janssen administered the cape?        Describe the achievements of J.W.Janssen for the cape between 1803-1805.

  • After the peace treaty of Amiens the cape colony was put under the Batavian rulers
  • The Batavians were liberals who were being influenced by the French internationalists
  • When they were at the cape reforms in law, freedom of worship and development of education were observed
  • They reduced conservation in administration and made efficient  General J.W Janssen and commissioner Jacob Demist Abraham were the chief administration of the cape by then
  • High courts of appeal were set up which were independent from the executive
  • Free & fair laws were enhanced during their period
  • Districts were subdivided each under a special ruler
  • The districts were under representatives called land roosts who acted as magistrates at that level
  • They were also responsible to assist the land roosts during civil cases
  • The special rulers who headed the subdivisions of the districts were called Veld Kotnot
  • They also performed duties like those of the land roosts
  • Trade restrictions were removed from the Dutch settlers
  • The khoi-khoi regained some of their lost land during the Batavian rule
  • Enslavement of the Africans was discouraged
  • New agricultural projects were encouraged & that’s when Merino sheep were introduced in south Africa from Spain
  • Africans were opened to education 

THE BRITISH REFORMS AT THE CAPE BETWEEN (1806-1805)

Qn. Explain the changes introduced by the British at the cape       

What steps were made by the British to make the cape colony at a better place?

  • In 1806 Britain occupied south Africa because of Napoleonic wars in France
  • In 1805 the Batavian rulers refused to hand in power to Britain 
  • Britain had to conquer it with around 61 ships
  • They were compensated with 16m pounds for having lost the cape
  • During 1806 the British adopted different reforms in economics, languages, education, press, judiciary administration, church and slavery
  • In 1825 new paper money was introduced based on British pound, which replaced Dutch rax dollar
  • Salaries of government officials were reduced because of the increased value of money
  • Farmers were given chance to sell there produces to any company which would offer high prices
  • The priests were now being paid and now became pubic servants
  • Expenditure on public works was reduced and financial assistance which was extended to immigrants was stopped
  • Many small retail shops were established at the cape 1811
  • Englsh was declared the official language and replaced the dutch language
  • Incentives were given to people who were ready to teach English in the area
  • Public schools were put up eg swollen dam, tulbag
  • In 1828 freedom of praise was granted
  • In the same year all interested new printers were requested to deposit 300 dollars before getting permission
  • By 1835   many papers  had   been  printed  like Grahamston,Journal,Zuid afrikaan and commercial advertises 
  • Supreme courts were put up under judiciary which were free & fair to all people
  • Trials by jury was established through the charter of justice
  • Judges were to be appointed by the British and they were to be paid by the  government
  • The non whites frequently did translations in the courts
  • Only professional judges and lawyers were allowed to judges cases and work in courts of law
  • Judges were to be independent and own offices so long as they were normally up right
  • From 1806-1825 cape was under the colonial secretary of London as the governor
  • A council of advisers set up in 1825 which consisted of the governor, chief justice and the colonial secretary
  • Freedom of worship was extended to all religious denominations
  • In 1834, a legislative council was set up (Parliament) which was to debate on the country’s issues & laws  
  • All religious denominations leaders (priests) were to enjoy state privileges
  • The dutch reformed churches received liberty in 1824 & government representatives were stopped attending synods
  • In 1834 slave had to be abolished working hours of slaves were reduced
  • In 1816 slaves had to be registered and pardoned
  • Slaves were given Sundays and attending prayers and as a resting day
  • All land was to be marked,surveyed, fenced and owners be given land tittles
  • Pass books were not to be carried forward any more
  • The right to cain slaves by their hear complaints from slaves an dtheir maters
  • Schools for slaves children were to be put in place.

Effects of the British Reforms on Africans

Explain the importance of British changes at the cape.

  • Africans gained more liberty and freedom
  • Africans acquired their land back from the Boers
  • Africans received payments due to their labour offered to the whites • Africans level of education was uplifted through mission centers
  • The Kho-khoi remained as the slaves technically since they were regarded as servants in law
  • Free movement of Africans was achieved after the pass book being withdrawn
  • Blacks became interpreters in courts and usually reported their masters because of ill treatment
  • Africans were hated more by the Boers/Dutch which resorted them into the great trek
  • Africans accommodation was improved 

The Boers’ Response to the British Presence At THE CAPE BEFORE (1835)

How did the Boers respond to British presence at the cape?

  • The Boers were not all happy about British reforms because it intervened their way of life
  • This made the Boers to have certain response to the British between 1806-1835
  • The Boers on the eastern and northern boaders became unsatisfied
  • In 1795, they revolted against the British administration at the Graafrient and swaollen dam
  • Boers rebelled after the slatchers neck incident where the Boers were hanged
  • The Boers disliked the British for having over taxed them and giving them few services
  • They hated English laws, which gave equality to all races in south Africa 
  • The Boers opposed abolition of slave trade & slavery
  • It caused hatred with the Boers especially because of missionary works like Monrovian
  • The Boers became suspicious about the British plans of improving ministers from Scotland instead of the dutch church monsters
  • They resorted being brought to the court and being accused by themselves 
  • They didn’t allow the British act of educating Africans and preaching of brother hood
  • They also ignored the new education system based on English as the only language used in schools
  • They condemned the British for having failed to protect them against the cattle rushers ie the Xhosa on the eastern volunteer
  • They rejected the abolition of the dutch rax dollar 
  • They avoided British interference by trekking into the interior of south Africa in 1835
  • The  Boers opposed new policies of land introduced by British & the Boers did not accept the using English languages i.e. in parliament and all public sectors