Tanganyika

Tanganyika

  • On 9th December 1961, Tanganyika became the first East African state to achieve independence.
  • It was steered to independence through the efforts of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere and Tanganyika African National Union (TANU).

Role played by Tanganyika African National Union (TANU)

  • TANU was formed on 7th July 1954 in Dar-es-salaam.
  • It replaced Tanganyika African Association (TAA).
  • Dr. Julius Kambarage Nyerere assumed leadership of the party.
  • The party made it clear that Tanganyika was an African country and therefore Africans had to have majority seats in government.
  • The party opened up offices all over the Tanganyika which united the people.
  • In 1954, a UN mission was sent to Tanganyika proposing a planned constitutional process towards independence.
  • In 1955, Nyerere visited the UN in New York to explain TANU’s aims and press for support.
  • Nyerere and TANU received a lot of sympathy from the UN that was against colonialism in Africa.
  • TANU successfully mobilized Tanganyikans for self rule in the next two years.
  • In 1958, TANU won a landslide victory in the Legislative Council elections largely due to its multi-racial policy.
  • The wide spread use of Kiswahili as a national language also made it easy for the party to build a huge following.
  • TANU defeated its only rival the United Tanganyika Party (UTP) that was formed in 1956 by some members of the Legco.
  •  After suffering a heavy defeat, UTP was disbanded unconditionally and this increased TANU’s power and credibility.
  • TANU planned the composition of the Legco to speed up the independence of Tanganyika.
  • In the August 1960 elections, TANU swept the polls winning seventy out of seventy one African seats.
  • During the voting, TANU promised Tanganyikans self rule, safe guarding their interests and introduction of complete adult voting.
  • On 1st May 1961, Tanganyika was granted internal self rule under Dr. Julius Nyerere.
  • Nyerere became the first prime minister and therefore TANU provided the first leaders of Tanganyika.
  • TANU africanised the civil service and introduced special training scheme to accelerate a changeover.
  • On 9th December 1961, the Duke of Edinburgh handed total independence to Tanganyika under Nyerere.
  • In 1963, Tanganyika became a one party state under TANU.