The First Anglo – German Agreement (1886)

The First Anglo – German Agreement (1886)

  • After  the paper work in Berlin was  done, the next major step in the  actual partition of  E.A  was the  signing to the  1st  Anglo  – German  agreement  of 1886.
  • At first, Britain was reluctant to sign any agreements with Germany.
  • Karl Peters had signed treaties with African chiefs like Mwanga of Buganda and the chief of the Wanga society but went ahead to sign the 1st agreement with the British.

Terms of the first Anglo – German agreement

  • East Africa was to be divided into two from the coast up to Lake Victoria.
  • The Southern part was to belong to German and the northern part was to belong to Britain.
  • The islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, Mafia, Brava, and Mogadishu, all on the Indian Ocean were to belong to the sultan the Zanzibar. 
  • Both German and Britain were not to interfere with the area under the Sultan of Zanzibar whatsoever.
  • Claims over the Kilimanjaro district were to be settled between the two powers because Britain had arrived first in the area before the Germans.

The Second Anglo – German Agreement (1890)

     It was signed in July 1890 and came to be known as the Heligoland treaty.

 Terms of the Heligoland treaty

  • Germany was to lose the Northern area i.e. the Wanga area (Western Kenya) to the British who would in turn lose the Kilimanjaro area. 
  • The Islands of Zanzibar, Mafia and Pemba were to be given to the British. 
  • Uganda and Kenya were to be confirmed as Britain spheres of influence.
  • Uganda was to become a protectorate while Kenya was to become a settler colony.
  • The agreement was to mark the end of political and commercial importance of Zanzibar since it had become part of the British sphere of influence.
  • Colonial rule and economic policies like taxation, cash crop growing were to be introduced.