Types of soils

Types of soils

There are majorly there types of soil. Namely,

  •  Sandy soil
  • Clay soil
  • Loam soil

Sandy soil

This type of soil contains more than 80% sand and are not more than 5% clay.

Properties of sandy soil

Have large particles.

Have large air spaces.

Has a rough texture.

Has poor water holdings capacity.

Has good drainage.

Has very low capillarity.

Has low pH ( acidic).

Has loose structure.

It is light and easy to till or cultivate.

Easily eroded and leached.

Cannot be molded easily into shapes.

The particles feel rough when dry and gritty when wet.

It is usually single grained and the particles are loose.

It is well aerated.

Improvement of sandy soil to suit crop production

Addition of organic matter.

Addition of artificial fertilizers.

Irrigation to add water.

Liming to control soil acidity.

Addition of organic manures e.g. FYM, compost.

Mixing with other types e.g. clay.

Clay soil

 These contain 30% or more of clay particles.

Properties of clay soil

Has a fine texture.

Is poorly aerated.

Poorly drained.

Has high water retention capacity.

Has very high capillarity.

Is not easily eroded/ leached.

It is sticky when wet.

It can easily form a ribbon when molded.

 It is rich in plant nutrients.

Expands when wet and cracks when dry.

Its pH ranges from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline.

Encourages water logging.

Has small air spaces.

It is heavy and not easy to cultivate.

Improvement of clay soil for crop production

By draining i.e. removing excess water

Adding organic matter

Adding other types e.g sand to improve on its properties.

Loam soil

Loam soil contains almost equal proportions of sand, clay and silt.

Properties of loam soil

It is well aerated.

It is moderately drained.

Moderately coarse textured.

Has adequate plant nutrients

Not easily leached.

Has a high population of soil living organisms.

It has high organic matter content.

Has a moderate water holding capacity.

Easy to till.

Have loose particles that crumble when pressed.