Use of potassium permaganate.

Use of potassium permaganate.

Materials used

  • Seed lot
  • Potassium permanganate solution
  • Beaker
  • Heat source


  • Put a counted number of seeds in a beaker containing potassium permangate solution.
  • Heat the seeds in the beaker for some time to break the testa so that they can release the liquid in them.
  • Potassium permanganate solution is usually purple in colour and will get discoloured if the seeds are vaiable.


In this method, calculation of the germination percentage is impossible because it is difficult to identify the seeds that release the liquid and those that have not.

Advanatages of using seeds for Propagaton

  • Seeds can be stored for a longer time and they remain available.
  • Seeds are easy to handle and transport because they are less bulky.
  • It is generally cheaper than vegetative propagation
  • It controls the spread of parent diseases in the seeds
  • Plants established from seeds have longer life span than those established vegetatively.
  • Ensures variation among plants since it involves crossing over pollination.
  • Seeds are easy and possible to plant with machines.
  • Some plants cannot be propagated vegetativley so; the only way to propagate them is by seed e.g maize, beans.
  • Easy to apply fertilizers during planting time together with the seeds


Use of seeds encourage the spread of seedling or seed – borne diseases

It takes longer for the plant to teach maturity.

There is low uniformity among the off spring and the parents

Requires proper land preparation and nursery bed preparation which makes it tiresome.

Some seeds have prolonged dorminacy period that makes them take long to germinate.

The use of seeds encourages quick spread of undesirable characteristics of the plant.

Some plants do not have valiable seeds to be planted.

Seeds of some plants have low germinability.