What is Vegetative propagation

What is Vegetative propagation. This is where new plants are produced without the use of seeds.

Vegetative planting materials are plant parts that contain or can develop buds and have the ability to produce roots resulting into development of new plants.

Plants that a rise from the same parent through vegetative propagation are referred to as Clones. Plants may be propagated vegetative include, sugarcane, bananas sweet potatoes, Irish, pineapples and ginger e.t.c.

Types of vegetative propagation

There are mainly 2 types of vegetative propagation

  • Natural vegetative propagation
  • Artificial vegetative propagation

Natural vegetative propagation

This is the method of vegetative propagation in which plant parts i.e.  roots or stems have been modified naturally for food storage

They include the following:

Stem tubes

Swollen underground stems that have buds (eye) that develop into new plants are used e.g Irish, sweet potatoes.


These are plants that develop from the mother plant below the ground level and can be used for planting. It common in bananas, sisal, pineapples e.t.c.


These are individual shoots that develop in tillering plants especially grasses e.g guinea grass, pyrethrum, sorghum.


These are underground stems with modified leaves to store food between the modified leaves are auxiliary buds which grow into new plants e.g. onion garlic and lilies.


These are underground stems with nodes and internodes which store food and are able to germinate into new plants e.g Couch grass, spear grass e.t.c


These are horizontal stems growing above the ground surface producing and adventitious roots and new plants at their nodes e.g Wandering jew, sweet potatoes, straw berry, pumpkin e.t.c


These are vertical underground stems with short internodes and scaly leaves. They can be used as a planting materials e.g Cocoyam.


These are plants that develop externally from the stem or fruit of an old plant e.g pineapples


These are vegetative structures which are particularly found on top of a pineapple plant and establishes slower than the suckers when planted.


These are tiny plants produced in the inflorescence at the end of the plant’s life cycle e.g. sisal.


These are horizontal digital creeping stems about the ground modified to store food e.g. star grass.

Root tubers

These are swollen underground roots that can also be used for planting e.g. Sweet potatoes

Artificial Vegetative propagation


These are portion or parts of the plant that may be cut and used for multiplying plants.

There are 3 types of cutting i.e

  • Stem cutting e.g. cassava, sugarcane, and elephant grass.
  • Root cutting e.g. guavas, apples pears e.t.c
  • Leaf cutting e.g. African violet

Some cuttings are planted directly into the soil. E.g cassava, sweet potatoes while others are delicate and first need to be raised in the bed to root and then later planted in the field.

They are usually in the rooting medium to encourage rapid rooting. The medium may include, sand, peat, saw dust and soil.

The medium should be well aerated for easy development of the roots. The rooting medium is first   sterilized to avoid infection by soil pathogens.

This is done by heating the soil using steam or chemically using fumigants.