What is individualization

What is individualization

 What is individualization. Industrialization is the process in which a society transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into an economy based on manufacturing.

What is individualization

An industry is a working set up which produces goods and services that a community uses. Industries are very diverse and may include activities like mining manufacturing building, quarrying etc.

However, the word industries are often used to describe factories that change raw metals into finished goods. Most industries In east Africa are mainly concerned which processing Agricultural raw metals. (Agro-based industries)
Industries therefore are categorized into 4
1 Primary Industries
These are mainly extractive industries involving the exploitation of
natural resources e.g. fishing mining, forestry queering.
2 Secondary or Manufacturing industries
These process goods from primary industries in to finished products.
These industries are further divided into two:
A)Heavy industries
Deal with heavy or bulky raw materials and involve hoary capital investment e.g engineering, ship building, heavy chemical industries etc.
b) Light industries
Use light and compact Materials and produce small and light cuticles e.g. plastics, textiles, cosmetics, cosmetics toilet articles cigarettes food processing.
3 Tertiary or Miscellaneous industries
These involve provision of back up services e.g. Administration banking, Insurance, entertainment etc.
4 Quaternary industries
Involve provision of hi-tech and information services e.g. universities.
5 Markets oriented industries, we those whose location are determined by market e.g. breweries milk processing flour milling, bread making, fish processing cigarette making.
6 Raw metals oriented industries. The location is determined by presence of raw metals e.g. Hima Bamburi, Tororo
7 Import substitution industries. These industries provide goods which substitute for imports i.e. they make goods that would have been imported e.g. sugar factories.

B in this case therefore we are combined to manufacturing or secondary industries i.e. the processing of raw metals and semi processed materials into finished or more complex materials of great value that can be used by man.

The principal industries in East Africa
1 Jinja. Industries include. Textiles, food processing steel rolling mills breweries matches, pulp and paper, printing and publishing sugar processing, saw milling, manufacture of bicycle tyres mattresses, soap etc.
2 Kampala– Industries include. Chemical processing, food processing, Engineering steel rolling motor vehicle
assembly tobacco processing pharmaceuticals, leather tanning textiles etc
3 Nairobi
Food processing, printing and publishing, railway and motor vehicle repair breweries textiles cigarettes, cigarettes milk processing plastics etc
4 Mombasa
Food processing, steel works motor vehicle assembly, oil refinery (changawiwe), cement works ship repair, manufacture of iron sheets, bottles, fertilizers etc.
Eldora.
Metallurgical, Engineering, food processing, Textiles, leather tanning tobacco etc
5 Nakuru.
Cigarette Making, textiles, motor vehicle repair insecticides food processing sweaters.
6 Dar-es-salaam
Grain milling, meat packing motor vehicle repair sisal processing cement, plastics, breweries, sacks bicycle assembling
7 Tanga
Cement manufactures, food processing, chemical, engineering. Metallurgical, textiles etc.

Conditions / factors which have favored the Development of industries in East Africa.

  1. Presence of abundant supply of power to run the industries e.g. Hydro Electricity power from Nalubaale power plant, Hale and Seven folks dametc petroleum.
  2. Availability of enough capital for investments provided by the government World Bank private investors like Madhiran.
  3. Favorable government policy on industrialization which encourages
    investors of marinating political stability tax reduction etc.
  4. Accessibility by water land and air to enable assembling of raw mountains and distribution of finished produce
  5. Presence of abundant raw materials to feed the industries in the making of
    finished products e.g minerals and Agricultural raw materials
  6. Existence of a large market both at home and abroad to consume the finished products
  7. Presence of large supply of labour both skilled and unskilled by foreigners e.g Indians
  8. Presence of flat and vast land for the establishment and expansion and industries
  9. Presence of adequate and appropriate technology and research in industrial, development
  10. Political, stability, which attract foreign investors on well as investment opportunities.
  11. The influence of geographical/ industrial inertion. I.e. the ability of an industry remain in a given place because at associated advantages e.g. raw materials established infrastructure experienced source of labour etc.

Contribution of industrial development in east Africa.

  • Stimulates the development of infrastructure e.g. roads xuls hospitals, railway lines etc.
  • Create employment opportunities for the local population e.g. technicians, drivers, security guards etc.
  • Source of government revenue through taxation of the employees the investors as well as goods in transit.
  • Generation of income for the local population helping them to improve on their standards of living.
  • Provision of consumer goods to the local population.
  • Sources of foreign exchange through the exportation of semi and finished products to other countries like U.S.A India Egypt
  • It has led to development of urban centers because of many employment opportunities e.g. Jinja, Kampala, Nairobi
  • Diversification to the economy and thus wide widening the government
    tax base.
  • Promotes international trade and co-operation between east Africa and her trading partners like S.Africa, India, U.K flowers.
  • Further promotes research and scientific study in East Africa.
  • Reduced on the costs of importing finished products like shoes, sugar, cooking oil etc.
  • Provide market for Agricultural products like tea, pyrethrum cotton sisal etc
  • Promotes domestic tourism
  • The local population employed in these industries acquire skills related to industrial development.

    Problems resulting from industrial Development in East Africa.
  • Increased struggle for land leading to land disputes.
  • Exhaustion of raw mtrls threatening the future of industries leading to unemployment.
  • Pollution of air water and land.
  • Urbanization and its related problems e.g. unemployment’s high crime rates slum development etc
  • Increased land degradation i.e. recantation of swamps deforestation,
    destruction of landscape.
  • Repatriation of profits by foreign investors
  • Industrial accidents which led to loss of lives and property
  • Displacement of the population calling for expensive resettle men

Problems facing industrial Development in East Africa
(Factors hindering effective industrial development)

  • Political instability in some parts of east Africa scaring always-potential investors
  • Insufficient capital in the industrial center because of high costs of production.
  • Inadequate, skilled man power to run the industries
  • Inadequate technology and research limiting automation and efficiency in production.
  • Shortage of industrial raw materials i.e. most of the minerals occur in small quantities and other are of low grades.
  • Unfavorable government polices i.e. putting much emphasis on Agriculture imposing high taxes on investors etc.
  • Inadequate land for industrial expansion and development due to the rapid population growth in East Africa.
  • Limited domestic market for industrial product because of poverty and low purchasing power.
  • Completion for market for industrial products because of poverty and low purchasing power.
  • Competition for market which development countries like Japan, China, U.K.
  • Industrial accidents
  • Poor and unreliable transport network affecting the delivery of raw materials and finished products.
  • Shortage of water for industrial development especially in Kenya.
  • Fluctuations in climate affecting the production and distribution of Agricultural raw metals like cotton, coffee, sugar etc.

Steps being taken to promote industrial development in East Africa

  1. Expansion of the East Africa community to widen the market e.g Rwanda and Burudi.
  2. Privatization of industries for efficient management and production e.g Nytil to pictare.
  3. Construction of more power projects to increase power supply e.g. Kiira dam Nalubaala power projects etc as well as diversifying to other power sources like petroleum.
  4. Construction of new roads and widening the existing one to localities the transportation of raw units and finished goods.
  5. Encouraging foreign investors to come and invest in the industry.
  6. Restricting importation of manufactured goods which are locally produced i.e. encourage the development of import substitution industries.
  7. Advertise to encourage consumption of locally manufactured goods
  8. Recycling of scrap to provide raw metals for the steel related industries.
  9. Applying for financial support from internal financial institution like the world Bank
  10. Training of more manpower as well as carrying out research to improve on automation and efficienary
  11. Encouraging the development of small-scale industries e.g. cottage
    industries.

The industries have the following advantages

  1. Promote employment opportunities
  2. They require limited skilled man power
  3. They can be started anywhere
  4. The use very little raw materials.
  5. There is minimal pollution of the environment.
  6. They use locally produced raw metals
  7. They generate revenue for the government.

FISHING IN EAST AFRICA.

Fishing is the hunting of aquatics lives from water bodies e.g. Fish lobsters, crabs whales, shrimps, crocodiles; these water bodies are referred to as fishing ground / fisheries.
There are 2 types of fisheries in East Africa
a) Fresh water fisheries.
These involve fishing in the inland water bodies like swamps, ponds, rivers and lakes.
The major species of fish in the inland fisheries include Nile perch. Lungfish catfish, Tilapia, mud fish Bagrus Dagaa electric fish etc.
The major inland water bodies in east Africa include:

  1. Lake Victoria.
    It offers the biggest catch and the main species include tilapia Nile perch bagrus haplachramus etc
    The major fishing methods is gill netting and preservation include smoking freezing and deep flying
  2. Lake kyoga
    is the most intensively fished lake in east Africa because it is shallow.
    Fishing is done by using methods like fish traps, gill nets baskets and long ling.
    The main fish species include tilapia, pretentious. The landing sites include Bulaingu, Namansale, Lwampanga.
    Lake Tangayika
    The main type of fish caught is dagaa, and the major port is Kigoma.
    Lake George.
    It is the most productive lake in east Africa as it is only 3m deep and because of dropping of hippos, which fertilize the water. However the main problem is presence of crocodiles the main port is Kasenyi.
    B the marketing of the fish is done by TUFMAC (The Uganda fish marketing cooperation).
    Lake Turkana.
    Fishing is affected by remoteness and lack of market. However it is important for sport fishing in East Africa as applies to lake Naivasha
    Lake Albert
    It is the most important fishing ground in uganda and the major ports or landing sites include Ntoroko, Butiaba, Wanseke, e.tc. and other water bodies

MARINE FISHERIES.

This fishing is called out in salty waters i.e. oceans and seas most produced in
Kenya and Tanzania (Pemba and Zamibar)
The major marine fish species include sardines cod mackerel, tuna, anchery ,
Haddock, halibut etc
Marine fish species are categorized.
Pelagic species
The live the near the water surface e.g. sardines mackerel tuna and
anchories.
Dimersal species.
These live and breed near the seabed e.g. hard lock, halibut cod etc.
Crustaceous species.
These have external skeletons e.g lobsters, shrimps, Crabs oysters, prawns
Fishing methods in east Africa.
There are major 2 types of fishing methods in east Africa.
a) Commercial or modern methods of fishing
These include trawling, drifting, lobster traps, long lining and purse seining.
b) Traditional or Primitive methods
These include gill neting, use of baskets, use of spears bows and arrow lampara (lamp attracting) using hoks and fish traps
B. Marine fisheries in east Africa are underdeveloped because of the following
a. Presence of a narrow continental shelf affecting the multiplication of
planktons and fish
b. High temps at the coast making the fish bad easily and quickly.
c. The ocean flow covered by coral reefs which interfere with the fishing activities
d. Presence of a straight castling which is not suitable for the development of ports and fishing villages.
e. Inadequate capital to purchase the modern fishing equipment
f. Presence of strong ocean currents along the coast which discourage the use of small vessels
g. Limited fish species of commercial values.
h. Limited planktons at the cost because of the depth of the ocean
i. Presence of inappropriate technology i.e. the fishermen at the coast still use primitive methods like baskets.
j. Inaccessibility of some of the fishing grounds
k. Competition with development counties like Norway Japan etc.
l. The people along the making it very unpopular

The preservation methods used in East Africa

  • Smoking – Salting
  • Sun drying – Freezing / Refrigeration
  • -Deep frying – Canning

Uses of fish in east Africa

  • Animal feeds
  • Food/ Sources of proteins
  • Glue
  • Soap
  • Fertilizers
  • Medicine
  • Cosmetics

Factors favoring the development of the fishing industry in east Africa.

  1. Presence of extensive water bodies both fresh and salty e.g. Lake Victoria, Tanganyika. Kyoga Indian ocean
  2. Presence of a large market both at home and abroad in countries like U.k Japan Canada etc.
  3. Favorable government of providing loans to the fishermen, protection against foreign competition diversification of the economy.
  4. Presence of improved refrigeration facilities like freezing, canning etc.
  5. Abundant supply of labour both skilled and unskilled due to the dense population around lakes, rivers and the Indian Ocean.
  6. Presence of a variety of fish species of commercial value like Nile perch mackerel etc
  7. Availability of modern fishing gears inform of motorized boats
  8. Abundant supply of planktons due to the shallowness of the water bodies to support large shoal.
  9. Availability of adequate capital provided by the government and foreign investors to purchases modern fishing gears.
  10. Presence of a well development and reliable transport network for quick transportation of fish from fishing grounds to inland markets.
  11. Presence of fish companies that after support to the fish men inform of providing nets, boat engines as well as market.
  12. Existence of forests and forests productions for making boats and providing firewood.
  13. Presence of fish processing industries which provide market e,g Masese fish company, Gomba fish company etc.
  14. The existence of an extensive, shallow continental shelf favoring the growth of planktons and subsequent multiplication of fish.

Contribution/ importance of the fishing industry to East Africa

  1. Fishing industry has provided employment opportunities to many people living at the cost and on islands i.e. as fishermen, processors, and Transporters e.tc
  2. It has promoted research and scientific education in E.Africa
  3. The fishing industry has also led to the improvement of peoples diet.
  4. The industry is also a major source of government revenue through taxation of the fishermen as well as the companies involved.
  5. The fishing industry has diversified the economy of East Africa thereby widening the government tax base.
  6. The industry has diversified the economy of east Africa thereby widening the government tax base.
  7. It has led to the development of towns and parts e,g infrastructure like, roads ice, plants, school etc.
  8. The industry has also promoted the development of infrastructure liken roads, ice, plants, school etc.
  9. It is a source of income to the local population along the coals.
  10. The fishing industry in East Africa has promoted trade and internal relations between east Africa and her trading partners like U, S.A
  11. The people employed in the fishing industry have acquired new and modern skills related to fishing.
  12. It has promoted tourism.
  13. It has led to the improvement of standards of living at the people.
  14. The industry is also a major sources of raw metals used for in the manufacture of fertilizers animals feeds, glue, medicine, cosmetics.

The problems associated with the fishing industry

  1. Pollution of the waters by the vessels and industries along the coast.
  2. Deforestation because of the high demand for firewood and timber for smoking and boat making respect ring.
  3. Extinction of some fish species because of over fishing
  4. Accidents treading to loss of lives and property.
  5. Conflicts over territorial water e.g Mijingo
  6. Urbanization with related problems like unemployment high crime rates, slum development etc.

Problems affecting the Development of the fishing industry in East Africa

  1. Inappropriate technology in the fishing industry. The fishermen also use poor fishing gears.
  2. Inadequate capital to improve on the fishing activities.
  3. Inaccessibility of some of the fishing, grounds making the transportation of fish to the inland markets difficult.
  4. Presence of predation like crocodiles and sharks in the oceans which feed on other aquatic lives.
  5. Limited processing and preservation methods in east Africa.
  6. Presence of shallow areas of the east Africa coastline limiting the use of big vessels.
  7. Pollution of the waters by domestic and industrial effluence which affects the metabolism of aquatic lives.
  8. Competition for market with developed countries like Japan, Norway, Canada etc.
  9. Profit repatriation by foreign companies.
  10. Indiscriminate fishing treading to depletion of some of the fishing industries.
  11. Theft of nets, boats and boat engines.
  12. Compact nature of the east Africa coast line limiting the development of landing sites as well as multiplication of fish
  13. Presence of water needs which limit fish metabolism and movement of boats in the inland water bodies like L. Victoria.
  14. Limited fish species of economic value.
  15. Presence of shared water resources leading to uncultured fishing and dispute
  16. Limited government support to the in some cultures people don’t eat fish hence limiting markets.
  17. Small market for fish and fish products for example in some cultures people don’t eat fish hence limiting market.