What is transport

What is transport

Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. 

What is transport

Advantages of road transport

  1. They are flexible hence can reach most parts of the country.
  2. Cheaper and quicker over long distances.
  3. Can be used to carry a wide range of goods from parcels to wide.
  4. Roads can be built over steep gradients unlike railway lines.

Disadvantages.

  1. Expensive over long distances.
  2. Very large cargo cannot be carried at once.
  3. Roads are costly to build and maintain
  4. Susceptible to many accidents.
Advantages of Air transport.
  • Great speed
  • Time saving because of speed
  • No physical barriers e.g. mountains
  • Freedom of movement in air
  • Ideal for transporting light and expensive freight e.g Jewellery
  • Remote to inaccessible areas ca

Disadvantages.

  • Expensive for most people.
  • Limited carrying capacity
  • Interruptions by bad weather e,g thick fog. Ice snow and storms.

Advantages of Water transport.

  1. Cheap since less fuel is used
  2. Heavy and bulky goods can be transported
  3. Often less effected by joins and congestion.

Disadvantages.

  1. It is slow and therefore unlit for perishable commodities.
  2. Double coast of loading and unloading have to be incurred at the
    terminals.

Advantages of railway transport.

  1. Movement of large qualities of cargo
  2. Coaches or wagons can be designed for specialized goods.
  3. Avoid congestion which is often found on roads,
  4. The railway lines are much easier to maintain once laid.
  5. Heavy and bulky commodities can be transported at ago

Disadvantages.

  1. They are slow had to be incurred at terminals of loading
  2. Not flexible as fixed routes must be followed and double costs

The Tazara/ Tanzam Railway.
The Chinese constructed this railway, it was opened in 1975, it runs from Dar-es-salaam in Tanzania to Kapiri-Mpashi in Zambian a distance of 1800km. it is owned by the Tanzanian government him for its constructions.

AIMS FOR ITS CONSTRUCTION

  1. To provide a safer alternative route to the land locked Zambia
  2. To encourage economic activities in South Tanzania by providing access to the Northern markets
  3. To Export Zambias copper
  4. To promote regional cooperation and inter territorial trade.

Contribution of the Tazara Railway

  1. The railway has opened up an alternative route through the
    southern highlands of Tanzania.
  2. It has helped in the exportation of copper from Zambia and D.R.C through the part
  3. It has promoted regional cooperation and trade between Zambia and Tanzania.
  4. Generation of employment opportunities to many people in
    Zambia and Tanzania e,g engineers,
  5. The Tazara railway has promoted tourism in the region thus an alternative source of forex.
  6. It has led to the growth and development of urban centers like Kasama, Kapiri-Mposhi, Kidatu, Ndola etc.
  7. It is also a major source of government revenue through taxation of goods on transit.
  8. It has enabled the importation of goods into the land located
  9. It has led to the development of infrastructure like Roads, schools Hospitals etc. Source of forex Obtained through taxation of goods
  10. It has facilitated the exploration of iron are from Mbeya region etc.
  11. Sources of income.
  12. It has led to industrial development.

    The products carried by the railway
  • Soda ash – Gold
  • Rice – Sugar
  • Iron ore – Coal
  • Salt etc – Copper

Problems faced by the Railway.

  • Congestion at port of Dar-as- salaam.
  • Delays in traffic and services due to congestion
  • Shortage of expert administrators because of inadequate
    foreign exchange.
  • Constant break-down of machines (wagons)
  • Shortage of spare parts
  • Inadequate modern handling facilities at the port of Dar-es-Salaam.
  • Pollution of the environment
  • Little profits because the railway passes through unproductive
  • Inter state sabotage
  • Flooding which washes way the rolils
  • Competition from other routes for trade goods.

Solution to the above problems

  • Containerization to reduce congestion.
  • An oil pipeline has been constructed from Dar to Ndola.
  • New warehouses have been constructed at ubangi.
  • An oil terminal has been constructed to accommodate huge oil tankers.
  • Alternative routes have been opened
  • Through Angola by Railway to lobito and Banguela
  • By road southwards to caps town, port Elizabeth and Duiban through
  • Mozambique to port Beira
  • Through Malawi by road to port Salimi etc.

ENERGY RESOURCES IN EAST AFRICA

Energy in east Africa is divided into two main groups
1 Non-renewable Energy resources: these include oil, natural gas and coal.
2 Renewable Energy resources e.g. Biomas from vegetation matter e.g. coffee and rice husks sorghum husks. Forest e.g. charcoal and firewood

Solid energy
Wind energy
Geothermal energy obtained in the following areas, Sempaya, Rwagimpa, Kitagata, Kisiizi, Kibiro Kihangoro and (All in Uganda) Karia, Ebaru, L. Bogalo, etc (Kenya)

Water for H.E.P generation. This type of energy is very clean i.e doesn’t pollute the environment and it the main source of power for industries in East Africa

H.E.P production in East Africa

Factors Favouring the development of River Dam projects /H.E.P dams in East Africa.

  1. Presence of water fall necessary to turn the turbines
  2. Presence of a large and ready markets for H.E.P
  3. Presence of improved and appropriate technology for constructing as well as generation of H.E.P
  4. Availability of adequate capital provided by the government and foreign investors.
  5. Presence of large supply of labour for dam construction.
  6. Availability of ready and reliable transport network.
  7. Presence of a narrow river valley (Gorge) To increase on the
  8. speed of water to turn the turbines.
  9. Availability of a large water reservoir inform of a lake.
  10. Favorable government polices on power generation
  11. Availability of regular and reliable water supply throughout the
  12. year. Provided by a permanent river

Several H.E.P dams have been constructed across east Africa and they include the following.

Uganda

Nalubaale power project (former Owen fall)
Is the most important sources of power project in East Africa opened in 1954. It has a capacity of 150 megawatts and generates over 97% of Uganda’s exports 1/3 of its power to Kenya and Rwanda.
Mobuku power project on R. mobuku in Kasese District
Bujjagali falls on R.Nile
N:B other potentral site for H.E.P generation in Uganda industries

Karuma falls on R. Nile
Murchison falls R. nile
Sszibwa falls R. ssezibwa
Sippifalls in Kapchorwa district
Maziba falls in Kabale

Tanzania

This smallest consumer and producer of H.E.P in East Africa. The major project includes.
Hale dam on R. pangani on Pangani falls
Kidatu on great Rwaha
Taita Taveta dam on R. pangani
Stiegler’s George project on Rufigi
Kalambo on Kalamba falls

Kenya
Kenya has a much smaller H.E.P potential compared to Uganda Majory on R. Tana and Ahi (Galana)
The most important project in Kenya is on R. Tana and the seven folks dam. The dam involved the construction of several dams

  • Kindaruma (44mega watts)

Kamburu (94 mega watts), Gitaru. (145 mega walts( Other potential sites on R.Tana include,Mutonga,Kora Kora,Grand falls,Adam falls

Fourteen falls on R. Athi
Thompson falls on R. Ewaso. Ngiro, Lugard falls on R. Galaria, Webuye on R. Nzora etc.

Problems faced in the generation of H.E.P in East Africa

  1. Fluctuations in the water levels i.e. lakes and rivers.
  2. Inadequate skilled man power leading to over dependence on expatriates
  3. Presence of inappropriate technology in the generation of H.E.P
  4. Small markets due to poverty and low levels of industrial development
  5. Limited capital
  6. Competition from other sources of power.
  7. High cost of transmission
  8. Vandalism of the H, E, P facilities etc.
  9. Presence of waterweeds.

Contribution of dams in East Africa.

  • Provide water for irrigation
  • Have helped to culture flooding of rivers
  • Promote tourism and thus sources of forex.
  • Source of government revenue through taxation,
  • Development of foreign exchange through power exportation.
  • Modification of climate through evaporation, condensation and then rain.
  • Modification of climate through evaporation, condensation and then rain.
  • Provision of employment opportunities e.g. engines.
  • Sources of income to the local people.
  • Diversification of the economy
  • The man-made lakes behind the dams have promoted fishing.

URBANIZATION

This is the process where by an increasing proportion of the total population in a country settles in a town.
It is the process of growth and development of urban centers or nucleated settlements.
The causes of urbanization are the some of rural urban migration The major urban centers in East Africa
include. Towns such as : Kamapala, Mbarara, Mbala, Nairobi Nakuru, Arusha, Dodoma

b) Ports, ( I ) Inland ports eg Bukoba, musoma mwanza, Kisumu, Jinja Portbell, Kigoma Bukakata
( ii ) Sea ports.eg Mombasa, Malindi, Tanga, Lamu, Mtwara, Dar-es- Salaam

SITE AND SITUATION OF A TOWN
A site of a town is the ground on which it stands while situation of a town shows a town’s position in relation to the surrounding areas.

FUNCTIONS OF URBAN CENTERS IN EAST AFRICA (PORTS AND TOWNS)

  • They act as Commercial Centers
  • They act as Industrial Centers
  • They act as Residential Centers
  • They act as Financial Centers
  • They act as Educational Centers
  • They act as Administrative Centers
  • They act as Tourist Centers
  • They act as Recreational Centers
  • They act as cultural Centers
  • They act as transport. Centers

PROBLEMS FACING URBAN CENTERS IN EAST AFRICA.

Limited accommodation facilities.
Unemployment
High crime rates
Easy spread of diseases
Inadequate social amenities
Pollution of the environment
Growth of dums with associated problems.
High cost of living
Limited space for expansion
Congestion
Careless people cause accidents

Solutions

  • Vertical expansion i.e sky scrappers
  • Encouraging family planning
  • Enforcing law and order to reduce the crime rates
  • Emphasize laws that govern the development of modern cities.
  • Establishment of traffic lights
  • Construction of fly over
  • Development of rural areas.

NAIROBI

This is the largest town and industrial center of east Africa; originally it was a place for repairing railways

Factors for the growth and development of Nairobi city

  • Influence of early European and Asian administrators
  • Presence of rich agricultural hinterland.
  • Adequate supplies of power from Jinja and later from power
  • project from river tana.
  • Existence of dense population that provided manpower.
  • Favorable government polices on urban development
  • Availability of large supplies of water from R. Tana
  • Favorable cool climate influenced by the Kenyan
  • Adequate Capital for the development of infrastructure
  • Presence of adequate and reliable transport network
  • political stability

MOMBASA.
Is the largest port in east Africa and the 2nd largest industrial town in east Africa it developed on Ria ground. It has the largest oil refinery in East Africa at a place called Changamwe.

Factors growth and development of Mombasa.

  • Presence of deep waters, which allow large vessels to anchor
  • Presence of a natural harbour which is well shattered from the
  • waves of the Indian ocean
  • Availability of hard basement rocks for the construction of the port
  • Presences of a large hinterland i.e., Kenya, Uganda Rwanda and DRC.
  • Presence of ice free conditions through the year permitting port activities
  • Presences of efficient transport network based on roads
  • Presence of many industries
  • Strategic location in relation to intentional markets
  • Influence of historical factors e.g. Mazrui families Asians and Portuguese.
  • Favorable government polices on port development
  • Presence of advanced and appropriate technology inform of containers, lifts etc.

JINJA
Jinja is located in the North of L. Victoria occupying a headland surrounded by water of the Napolion galf.

Factors for growth and development.

  • Presence of rich agricultural hinterland
  • Presence of vast land for port development
  • Favorable government policy for port development
  • Large supplies of H.E.P for u=industrial development from owen fall dam.
  • Presence of large supplies of water from the nile and L.vicatoria.
  • Historical factors i.e it was a regional headquarters for the Eastern region and a seat for Kyabazinga .
  • Large population in the eastern region.
  • Adequate and reliable transport network based on the water railway and road.
  • Adequate capital for the development of the town