co-operative societies

co-operative societies

What are co-operative societies?

These are groups of people who live and work together with same objectives/ aims

Importance of co-operative societies in East Africa

  • To teach farmers good methods of farming.
  • To market farmers’ crops.
  • To provide farmers with quality seeds and animals at a subsidized price.
  • To provide proper storage for the farmers’ produce.
  • To provide farmers with modern garden tools at a subsidized cost.
  • To provide better transport for the farmer’s produce.

Methods used to improve on crop yields.

Mulching, fertilization, application of mature, spraying of crop pest, irrigation, crop rotation, grafting.

Livestock Farming

  1. Livestock farming: Is the rearing  and management of domestic animals and birds for purpose.
  2. Dairy farming: This is the keeping of animals mainly for milk production.

East Africa, dairy farming is mainly done in the Kenyan Highland.

Reasons why Kenyan highlands favoured dairy farming.

  1. Presence of water and pasture for the animals.
  2. Improved veterinary services.
  3. The area has limited diseases vectors.
  4. The cool climatic conditions.

Reasons why the whites settlers settled on the Kenyan highland.

  1. Favourable climatic conditions for settlement
  2. Presence of fertile soils  for farming.
  3. The highlands were near Nairobi which would provide ready market to their dairy products.

How can diary farming be improved in East Africa?

  1. By cross breeding
  2. Planting improved pastures to feed the animals well.
  3. Improving on the veterinary services.
  4. Rearing exotic breeds of cattle.

Products got from a dairy farm.

  1. Milk.
  2. Yoghurt
  3. Cheese 
  4. Ghee
  5. Ice cream 

c) Ranching

  1. This   is the keeping of cattle mainly for beef production.
  2. Ranching is carried out mainly in the savana vegetation due to presence  of pasture for the animals
  3. In Uganda, ranching is dominant in areas of singo (Mubende and Mityana), Nyabushozi, Mbarara, Kiruhura, Isingiro, Ishaka, Ntungamo, Buruli (Nakasongora, Ngoma, Nakaseke).
  4. Products got from cattle
  5. Hides and skins which are raw materials for leather bags, belts, coats, shoes, wallets,etc.
  6. Horns used to make bangles, necklaces, earring, etc
  7. Glue from cows hooves.
  8. Meat (beef)
  9. Milk.
  10. Give examples of ranching schemes in East Africa
  11. Kisozi ranching scheme
  12. Kabanyoro ranching scheme. 

 Qn.: Why are goats the most commonly reared animals in East Africa?

  1. They require a small place to graze.
  2. They are more resistant to diseases than other animals.
  3. They do not discriminate feeds so much than the cows.
  4. They can with stand the dry conditions much more than other animals.

Pastoralism in east africa:

This is the traditional way of keeping cattle. It includes;

  1. Nomadic pastoralism: The movement of cattle keepers with their animals from one place to another looking for pasture and water.
  2. Transumance: Seasonal movement of pastoralists from one place to another with their animals looking for pasture and water e.g. the Fulani of Nigeria.

Examples of pastoral tribes in East Africa.

  1. Karamajong
  2. Turkana
  3. Tepeth
  4. Masai
  5. Bahima
  6. Dodoth


What is cattle rustling? It is the stealing of large numbers of cattle among tribes.

  • What has the government of Uganda done to reduce cattle rustling among the Karamongo?
  • The karamojong have been disarmed.
  • The government has provided special Education programmes to the Karamojong to reduce illiteracy among them.

Importance of cattle pastoral tribes.

  1. It is used to pay dowry (bride price)
  2. It is a symbol of wealth.
  3. It is a source of food (meat and milk)
  4. It is a symbol of prestige.

Problems faced by cattle keepers in East Africa.

Shortage of pasture and water.

Parasites and animal diseases.

Cattle rustling.

How can the government improve on the lives of pastoral people?

Encourage them to keep less number of cattle.

Extending artificial water sources to them e.g. bore hole / valley dams.

Teaching them modern methods of keeping cattle.

Encouraging them to grow drought resistant pastures.

Supporting projects that promote irrigation farming in their areas.

Methods of keeping cattle.



Free range

Zero grazing.



Tourism, sanctuary, game park, game reserve, game rangers, encroachment, giraffe, rhinos, hyena, buffalo, game cropping, wildlife, game, prey, herbivorous, predators, accommodation, tourist, guide, gazette.


What is tourism?

This is the business of providing accommodation, transport, food and other services to tourist.

Internal tourism: Involves movement of tourists with in the country.

External tourist: Involve movement of tourist across international boundaries

A tourist: Is a person who travels and visits a particular place for pleasure or study.

Examples of major tourist attraction in East Africa.

  1. National Game Park and game reserves.
  2. Physical features e.g. mountains, the rift valley,
  3. Climate.
  4. Coastal beaches.
  5. Vegetation features.
  6. Drainage features e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, seas etc,
  7. Culture etc



Wildlife comprises of birds, animals, insects and plants that live in the natural environment/ habitat.

The natural habitat may include:

Game parks.

Game reserves.



Soil (land)

Bushes etc.

Animals are categorized into domestic and wild

Animals can be herbivores, omnivores or carnivorous.

Herbivores: These are animals which feed on grass.

Examples include: Zebra, buffalos,  antelopes etc.

They commonly stay in the savanna vegetation where there is plenty of pasture for them to feed on.

Carnivorous / flesh eaters; Theses feed on meat.

They commonly stay in the savanna vegetation where there is plenty of prey for them to feed on.

Examples of carnivores: lion, cheetah, leopard, hyena etc.

Omnivores; These are animals that feed on both grass and fresh

Example of omnivores, raccoon, people, pig, rats, bear etc.

National game parks and game reserves in east africa.

  1. These are gazette areas where animals and birds are protected and hunting is not allowed.
  2. Game reserves: These are gazette areas where animals and birds are protected but hunting is allowed on permission.
  3. A zoo: A place where wild animals and birds are kept for people to view e.g. UWEC.
  4. Sanctuary: A place where birds are protected for people to view.

Importance  of wild life.

  1. It attracts tourists who bring income.
  2. It is a source of meat to people.
  3. It is used for research purposes by students.
  4. It is a source of raw materials to the industries.
  5. It creates employment to the people.

Importance  of game parks.

  1. They are sued for research purposes.
  2. They are a source of income through tourism.
  3. They preserve wildlife (rare species of animals)
  4. They are a source of employment to the people.
  5. They promote development of infrastructure in the places where they are locate.

Problems faced by game parks.

  1. Poaching
  2. Bush fires.
  3. Drought which causes shortage of pasture and water
  4. Animal disease and parasites.
  5. Remoteness of some places where game parks are located/ poor transport and communication.
  6. Encroachment on game park land e.g. through farming.

Solution to the problems faced by game parks.

  1. By employing more game rangers and wardens to control poaching.
  2. By enforcing strict laws against poaching.
  3. By ensuring tight security to control people from setting bushes on fire.
  4. By employing more veterinary officers to vaccinate and treat animals.
  5. The game park authority should relocate the people who encroach on the park land

Qn: Why are farmers not advised to set up their farms near game parks?

To avoid animals from attacking them and also destroy their crops.

Complete the following table

Attraction feature(s)Game park (s)
Mountain GorillasBwindi impenetrable, mgahinga
Flamingo birdsLake Nakuru
OstrichesKidepo valley national park
Antelopes, Crocodiles and HipposQueen Elizabeth National park, Muchison falls.
Sanctuary, hippos and buffalosKazinga channel.
Giraffe, lions and elephantsTsavo National park
Cheetahs, jackals, impala etcSerengeti national park.